GI Medications Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Final > GI Medications > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI Medications Deck (25):
1

Overall purpose of GI system

Digest & absorb nutrients from foods and fluids ingested

2

 

Gastric Glands

Glands in the stomach that is made up of many different cells 

3

Patietal Cells

Secrete HCl

  • Includes proton pump
  • Proton pump in the parietal cells pump H+ ions for creation of HCl

4

Chief Cells

Secrete pepsinogen which becomes pepsin 

For the digestion of proteins

5

Mucoid cells

Secrete mucus to protect the lining of the stomach from acid 

6

What three substances stimulate the parietal cells?

  1. acetycholine
  2. histamine
  3. gastrin 

7

 Parasympathetic Nervous System on

GI system 

"Rest & Digest" 

Exerts an excitatory influence to increase digestive secretions and GI muscular activity 

8

Sympathetic Nervous System on

GI system 

Fright, Fight, Flight

Exerts an inhibitory influence by depressing digestive secretions and GI muscular activity 

9

Antacids

Drugs that neutralize acid of the stomach 

10

Antacid action

Only work on acid already in the stomach 

(Not on acid yet to be made by the parietal cells) 

  • Repeated doses may be necessary
  • May also stimulate mucus production 

11

Effect of antacids on stomach

  • Increase stomach pH 
    • Stomach pH 1-2
    • Antacids pH change 3-4

12

Antacids used for treatment of: 

  • Peptic ulcers
  • Heartburn
  • Gastritis
  • Gastric hyperactivity 
    • Decreases pain associated with hyperactivity

13

Aluminum containing antacids

  • S/E: constipation
  • Caution w/ renal failure
  • None that contain just aluminum 

14

 

Milk of Magnesia 

  • Magnesium contraining antacid
  • S/E: diarrhea, flatulence 
  • Contraindicated with renal failure

15

Tums

  • Calcium containing antacid
  • S/E: kidney stones, constipation & acid rebound

16

 

Simethicone (Rolaids) 

  • Antiflatulent
  • Taken with Tums for gas

17

Baking Soda

  • Sodium bicarbonate antacid
  • S/E metabolic alkalosis 

18

 

Maalox

Mylanta 

  • Mixed with aluminum and magnesium antacids 
  • S/E: constipation & diarrhea (balances out) 

19

Usual antacid dose & time

  • 30-60 mL
  • Taken with water
  • After meals & at bedtime (hs) 

20

Antacid considerations 

  • Suck don't check tablets
  • Don't take with other meds
    • Decreases effectivenss of other meds
  • Prematurely dissolves enteric coated medications

21

 

H2 Antagonist 

Inhibits production of HCl

  • Blocks Histamine 2 receptors on parietal cells
    • Making them less responsive to histamine, gastrin, acetylcholine
  • 90% effective

22

 

Cimetidine (Tagamet) 

PO, QID, IV

  • H2 antagonist (inhibits HCl production) 
  • Uses: peptic ulcers, hyperactivity, gastic reflex (heartburn) 
  • S/E: Very safe but smoking decreases effectiveness 

23

 

Pepcid 

Axid

Zantac 

  • Other H2 Inhibitors 
  • BID 

 

24

 

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Newest class of drugs for acid disorders

  • Inhibits the final step in the acid secretion of parietal cell
  • Binds permanently w/ H+/K+ ATP base
  • No pumping = no HCl 
  • Bocks all acid production 

25

 

Omeprazole (Prilosec)

Prevacid

Nexium

Pantoprazole (Protonix)* 

  • Proton pump inhibitor
  • All are PO
  • *Given IV, PO, or NG