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Flashcards in Gisslen Deck (77):
1

How to steel a knife

4-5 strokes per side, 20 degree angle

2

dry heat method using fat

saute, pan-fry, deep fry

3

what temperature kills yeast

140

4

What is an emulsion?

A uniform mixture of 2 unmixable liquids

5

Vinaigrette

3 parts oil, 1 part vinegar

6

what is blind baking?

baking without a filling

7

does veal have a yield grade?

No

8

which cooking method for a brioche

sponge

9

adding herbs to food, how soon before serving

30 minutes

10

6 nutrients required to live

fat, carb, protein, vitamins, minerals, water

11

another name for decorators frosting

royal

12

2 examples of empty calories

starches, refined sugars

13

how many essential amino acids

9

14

4 parts of a salad

base, body, garnish, dressing

15

daily water intake

8x8 rule, 8 glasses 8oz

16

how many grades/classes of pork

4

17

vitamin that protects other nutrients

E

18

what are the trace minerals?

chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc

19

diets rich in _____ maintain healthy blood pressure

potassium

20

daily % of carb intake

55-60%

21

demi-glace

112 brown sauce, 1/2 brown stock

22

2 classes of custard

baked & stirred, never heat above 185

23

cooking temp for meats

1: Fish, pork, commercial game, raw eggs for immediate service: 145 for 15sec
2: eggs not for immediate service, ground meat, injected meats 158 less than 1 sec, 155 for 15sec, 150 for 1 min, 145 for 3 min
3: poultry, stuffed food, wild game, microwave 165 for 15 sec, microwave hold 2 minutes

24

LDL/HDL limits

LDL, 130 or lower
HDL, 60 or higher

25

simmer temperature

185-205

26

grey crumbs indicates...

temp too high, fermentation too long

27

which method for sweet doughs

modified straight

28

bake custard at what temp?

325 degrees

29

3 methods for cooking rice

boiling, risotto, pilaf

30

how long to hold hollandaise

90 minutes

31

to change a recipe to make it healthier, reduce calorie count to...

660 calories

32

which mineral reduces sodium

potassium

33

another name for a rundav

braiser

34

pie crust, top and bottom & dough temp

top flaky, bottom mealy: keep cool 60 degrees

35

what is a relish?

a mixture of chopped vegetables, at least 1 of which is pickled

36

dry-heat method

roast & bake

37

how thin to roll out foccasia

3/4"

38

an unthickened broth or stock is called ____

clear soup

39

3 types of fat

saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated

40

too many ketone bodies results in ____

ketosis, affects the carry of oxygen

41

oils with monounsaturated fat

olive oil, canola oil

42

oils with polyunsaturated fat

corn, safflower, sunflower, canola

43

how many grams of carbs to prevent ketosis?

50-100

44

pork is high in what?

thyamin

45

raisins are high in what

Iron

46

what are the major minerals?

calcium, chloride, phosphorous, potassium, sulfer, sodium, magnesium

47

how many mg of major minerals per day are needed?

100 mg

48

carbohydrates consist of what elements?

carbon, hydrogen & oxygen

49

how many grams of protein per day?

50-60

50

% of water in the human body

50-60%

51

% of diet fat intake

20-35%

52

how many cups/servings of each...

Fruit - 2 cups, 4 servings
veggies - 2 1/2 cups, 5 servings
whole grains - 3 servings
dairy - 3 cups

53

daily saturated fat limit %

10%

54

cholesteral daily limit

less than 300 mg

55

daily sodium & potassium intake

2,300 mg or 1 tsp

56

boiled eggs cook time:
soft, medium, hard

soft = 3-4 min
med = 5-7 min
hard = 12-13 min

57

how much water/salt per lb of pasta

1 gallon, 1 1/2 TB salt

58

what are rolled in/laminated doughs?

fat is incorporated in alternating layers

59

yeast temperatures: inactive, activating, proofing

34 degrees inactive, 70-90 degrees proofing, activated in water 4x its weight at 110 degrees

60

poached eggs: temp, salt, vinegar, time

1 tsp salt, 1 TB vinegar per quart. simmer 160-180 for 3-5 minutes

61

dice sizes: lg, med, sm, brunsoise

lg = 3/4
med = 1/2
sm = 1/4
brunsoise = 1/8

62

slice sizes: emincer, shred, batonnet, julienne

emincer = very thin strips
shred = thin strips
batonnet = 1/4 x 1/4 x 2 1/2
julienne = 1/8 x 1/8 x 1-2

63

measurements

1 gallon = 4 quarter
1 quart = 2 pints
1 pint = 2 cups
1 cup = 8 fl oz
1 fl oz = 2 TB
1 TB = 3 tsp

64

if fats are burned with no carbohydrates present ____ are produced

ketone bodies

65

proofing temp/humidity

80-85 degrees, 70-80% humidity

66

water soluble vitamins

B & C

67

fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E & K

68

vitamins needed for utilization of carbs for energy. promotes normal diet & healthy nervous system. prevents beriberi

Thyamin (B1)
Pork

69

vitamin that helps skin & mucous membranes resist infection & make night vision possible

A
liver, butter, cream, egg yolks

70

vitamin that promotes healthy skin & eyes

Riboflavin (B2)
organ meats

71

vitamin that promotes healthy nervous system, skin, & digestion. prevents pellagria

Niacin
liver, meat, poultry, fish

72

vitamin that promotes healthy blood & nervous system

B12
most animal & dairy products

73

vitamin that promotes healing & resistance to infection. prevents scurvy

C
citrus, tomatoes, potatoes, dark leafy greens, peppers, cabbage, broccoli, cantaloupe, berries

74

vitamin necessary for utilization of calcium & phosphorous

D
fortified milk products

75

vitamin needed for formation of red blood cells

Iron
liver, red meat, raisins, prunes, egg yolk

76

rice pilaf

sautéed in oil, then cooked

77

raw eggs received at what temperature?

45 degrees or less