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Flashcards in GIT anatomy Deck (35):
1

Name some monogastric animals

Cats, dogs, pigs, humans, chickens

2

Name some ruminants

cattle, sheep, giraffe, goats

3

Name some hind gut fermenters

horses, rabbits, elephant, ostrich

4

What are the 4 GIT functions?

1. motility, 2. digestion, 3. secretion, 4. absorption

5

Characteristics of motility?

Mixing ingested material with secretions
Peristalsis
Rate of movement varies bwn feed/spp

6

Characteristics of digestion?

Breakdown into smaller molecules - mechanical/enzymatic
Aided by secretions

7

Characteristics of secretion?

Release of useful substances in GIT lumen
Secretions: enzymes, buffers, bile, lubrication, solvent

8

Characteristics of absorption?

nutrient uptake & use
uses specialised cells lining GIT lumen
passive or active

9

Pharynx?

Passage for food to oesophagus & air to larynx
Lined by mucous membrane

10

Oesophagus?

Continuation of pharynx
Passage of food

11

Regions of pharynx?

naso-, oro-, laryngo-pharynx

12

Difference in bird oesophagus?

Contains crop (in prey birds) for temp food storage

13

Monogastric stomach anatomy?

cardiac sphincter, rugae, stomach, pyloric sphincter

14

How does monogastric digest?

HCl secretions - parietal cells
pepsinogen - chief cells
some bacterial activity in oesophagus
Collectively: Glandular Digestion

15

What are the 3 stomach glands & their secretions?

Cardiac (mucus), pyloric (mucus & pepsinogen), fundic (mucus, HCl, pepsinogen)

16

Two stomachs in birds & functions?

proventriculus (adds enzymes) & ventriculus/gizzard (grinding, mixing, contains grit)

17

Ruminent stomachs?

rumen, reticulum, omasum (forestomach), abomasum (stomach)

18

Rumen & reticulum characteristics?

Fermentation, chew cud (ruminate), microbes & water (alkaline pH), anaerobic

19

Omasum characteristics?

Small hard round, filled with muscular laminae (grinds roughage to reduce size, squeezes fluid out, absorbs H2O & FA's)

20

Abomasum characteristics?

true stomach, first glandular part of GIT, same function as monogastric stomach

21

Small intestine characteristics?

Long, narrow, digesta moves thru quickly, mobile (attached by mesentery) Mucous layer covered in villi providing enormous surface area

22

3 small intestine segments?

Duodenum (near pancreatic & bile ducts), jejunum (longest part), ileum

23

3 large intestine segments?

Caecum, colon, rectum

24

Caecum characteristics?

Large comma-shaped sac with 'blind' end. Appendix is on end in some species.

25

Large colon characteristics?

Largest capacity in GIT. Folds into 4 regions (left, right, dorsal, ventral)

26

Small colon characteristics?

Similar length to large colon, but smaller volume. narrow and more coiled. More free to move (can result in twisted gut)

27

Differences in GIT volumes (stomach/small intestine/large intestine) hind-gut fermenters vs ruminants?

Horse: Stomach - 10L, SI - 30L, LI - 60L
Cow: Stomach - 70L, SI - 20L, LI - 10L

28

2 types of rabbit faeces?

1. hard round dark 2. caecotrope - softer & larger (essential for digestion of cellulose to soluble nutrients)

29

What is coprophagy?

Ingestion of faeces

30

What are the 4 accessory digestive organs?

Salivary glands, liver, pancreas, associated SI glands

31

Salivary gland characteristics?

Major glands: parotid, mandibular, sublingual
Minor glands: labial, buccal, lingual, palatine

32

Liver secretion characteristics?

Processing of absorbed nutrients, energy storage, bile secretion, breakdown of exhausted RBC's.

33

Bile secretion pathway?

Hepatic ducts + common cystic duct -> common bile duct -> duodenum (Horse has no gall bladder so secretes continuously)

34

Pancreas secretion characteristics?

Near roof of abdomen (adjacent to duodenum)
2 functions: 1. exocrine (Na bicarb & digestive enzymes via ducts) 2. endocrine (secretes into blood without ducts (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin)

35

Associated SI glands characteristics?

Brunner's glands (duodenum - enzymes & mucus), Crypts of Lieberkuhn (between villi on SI - digestive enzymes), Peyer's patches (submucosa of intestines (esp ileum) - immune function)