Glaciated Landscapes🌁🗻🏔 Flashcards Preview

A Level - Physical Geography > Glaciated Landscapes🌁🗻🏔 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glaciated Landscapes🌁🗻🏔 Deck (64):
1

Glaciated Landscape

- those parts of the earth’s surface that have been shaped by the action of glaciers🏞
- eg Antarctica🇦🇶, Greenland🇬🇱 - high latitude
- eg Rocky Mountains⛰, Himalayas 🏔🗻 - high altitude
- eg places glaciated in the past - Northern Britain🇬🇧

2

System

- a group of objects and the relationships between them
- set of interrelated objects comprising of components(stores) & processes(links) that are connected together to form a working unit

3

Kinetic Energy

- capacity to do work as a result of motion🎢

4

Potential Energy🏗

- capacity to do work that a body possesses by virtue of its position and that is potentially transformable into another energy form

5

Thermal Energy

- capacity to do work as a result of heat🔥

6

Open Systems

- type of system whose boundaries are open to both inputs & outputs or energy & matter

7

Input⬅️

- an addition of energy and/or materials to a system

8

Output➡️

- transfer of energy and/or materials out of a system

9

Deposition

- layering down of sediment transported by rivers🏞, waves🌊, glaciers🗻 & wind💨, as energy levels decline

10

Weathering🌧🌨⛈❄️💨

- in situ breakdown of rocks exposed at or near the land surface by physical, chemical & biological processes

11

Mass Movement

- downslope🎢 transportation of material under gravity

12

Erosion

- the wearing away and/or removal or rock & other material by a moving force

13

Evaporation💧➡️🌫

- process by which liquid water is converted into a gaseous state

14

Sublimation❄️➡️💧

- phase changes of water from ice to vapour

15

Equilibrium

- long-term balance between inputs & outputs in a system

16

Dynamic Equilibrium

- system displaying unrepeated average states through time

17

Negative Feedback

- automatic response to change in a system that restores equilibrium

18

Glacier Mass Balance

- the difference between the amount of snow🌨 & ice❄️ accumulation & the amount of ablation occurring in a glacier over 1 year

19

Accumulation

- addition/gain of snow🌨☃️ & ice❄️ to a glacier over time

20

Ablation

- loss of ice❄️ & snow🌨☃️, especially from a glacier, through melting, evaporation & sublimation

21

Transportation

- movement of material by kinetic energy of a medium eg water💦, wind💨 or ice❄️

22

Aeolian

- erosional, transportational & depositional processes by the wind

23

Lithology

- chemical & physical characteristics of rock types

24

Structure

- physical characteristics of rocks, including their jointing🛠, bedding🛌, faulting, angle of dip🎢 etc

25

Aspect⛰

- direction the slope faces⛰☀️

26

Microclimate

- local climates whose main characteristics are determined by topography & land use

27

Diagenesis🌨➡️❄️

- process by which snow become ice due to compression
- fresh snow, open feathery structure - density - 0.05g/cm3
- snow which survives 1 summer, firn - density - 0.4g/cm3
- glacial ice - density - 0.83-0.91g/cm3
- takes between 30-40 & 1000 years
- true glacial ice isn’t encountered until depth of 100m - bluish colour - lack of presence of air

28

Corrie

- armchair-shaped Holmes found on upland hills
- steep back wall, over-deepened basin & often a lip at the front

29

Pressure Melting Point

- temperature at which ice melts when under pressure

30

Extending Flow

- movement of glacial ice down a steep gradient🎢🏔, during which it thins

31

Compressing Flow

- movement of glacial ice down a gentle gradient🌁, during which it thickens

32

Chelation

- type of chemical weathering caused by acid⚗️ derived from rainwater🌧 & dead💀 orgainic material

33

Rock Flour

- fine material derived from from abrasion by a glacier

34

Nivation

- glacial process which includes a combination of freeze-thaw action, solifluction, transport by running water💦 & chemical weathering⚗️🌧
- responsible for initial enlargement of hillside hollows & development of corries

35

Drift

- collective terms for glacial deposits including till & outwash

36

Till

- unsorted material deposited directly by glacial ice

37

Outwash

- material deposited by glacial meltwater💧

38

Glacial-Fluvial

- relating to meltwater from a glacier

39

Drumlins

- streamlined mounds of glacial drift

40

Arête

- narrow, ‘knife-edged🔪’ ridge between 2 corries

41

Pyramidal Peak

- angular, sharply pointed mountain peak🏔 which results from corrie erosion

42

Striations

- scratches/grooves on rock surfaces formed by glacial abrasion

43

Roche Moutonnées

- a rock hill shaped by passing of ice
- has a smooth stoss (upstream) side
- has a rough, plucked surface on the lee (downstream) side

44

Isostatic

Relating to vertical movements of the Earth’s crust

45

Terminal Moraine

- ridge of till extending across a glacial trough

46

Lateral Moraine

- ridge of till running along the edge of a glacial valley

47

Recessional Moraine

- series of ridges running transversely across a glacial trough

48

Proglacial Lakes

- body of water💦 impounded in front of a glacier

49

Jökulhaulps

- extreme glacial meltwater outbursts caused by geothermal or volcanic activity beneath glaciers

50

Kame

- hill composed of stratified sand🏝 & gravel laid down by glacial meltwater
- 2 types:
- delta kame
- terrace kame

51

Esker

- long, sinuous ridge composed of stratified sand & gravel laid down by glacial meltwater

52

Hydrostatic Pressure

- pressure exerted by a confined fluid eg water💦 under or in a glacier

53

Outwash Plain/Sandur

- flat expanse of glacial-fluvial sediment located beyond an existing or former glacier or ice sheet front

54

Active Layer

- near surface layer in a periglacial environment which seasonally freezes & thaws

55

Frost Heave

- downslope displacement of soil particles that results from cycles of freeze-thaw

56

Stone Garlands

- elongated accumulations of stones on a slope

57

Artesian Pressure

- hydrostatic pressure exerted on groundwater in a confined aquifer occupying a synclinal structure

58

Talik

- unfrozen ground⛰🏞

59

Ognip

- remains of a collapsed pingo🐧, forming a depression surrounded by circular earth ramparts

60

Energy Security

- uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price💰✅

61

Urban Heat Island

- town/city🏙 that is significantly warmer than its surroundings rural areas due to human activities🔥🚶🏽🏃🏽‍♀️

62

Solifluction

- slow flow of fine, water-saturated regolith from higher to lower ground🎢

63

Alases

- flat-floored, steep-side depressions in periglacial environments

64

Turbidity🌫💦

- cloudiness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles in suspension🌫💧