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AQA ALevel Geography - Glaciation A2 > Glaciation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glaciation Deck (13)
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1

What is the Glacial Budget?

Zone of Ablation - output greater than input, melting
Accumulation - input > output, advancing

2

What is a warm based glacier?

Temperature fluctuates between summer and winter. Basal sliding occurs and is generally found in temperate environments.

3

what is a cold based glacier?

With increasing depth, it will reach PMP, the base will be warmer. However, it remains frozen s base sliding will not occur. Generally found in polar regions.

4

What is internal Deformation?

When ice crystals are moved/side over each other as he result of glacial weight/gravity. Will slide in the direction of ice flow. Occurs in cold based glaciers.

5

What is extensional flow?

It causes thinning of surface and creates crevasses.

6

What is compressional flow?

Ice is thickened which can cause greater erosion.

7

What is Nivation?

The localised erosion of a slope, with solifluction and freeze thaw creating a Neve and eventually a Firn.

8

Erosional Landforms?

- Corries - Rouche Mountonee
- Arête - Hanging Valley
- Pyramidal Peak

9

Depositional Landform?

Drumlins

10

Case Study; ALASKA
Adaptations?

- Buildings elevated above ground
- Emergency 7 day plan, food for 40,000 (resilience)
- Emergency Batteries and Generators
- Utillidors (Alaskan Pipeline) (mitigation)

11

Case Study; ALASKA
Challenges?

- Short summer/ long winter
- Low productivity
- Remove areas
- Thawing
- Low temps
- Seasonal jobs

12

Case Study; ALASKA
Opportunities?

- Permafrost, act as a building base
- Abundant in minerals (economic prosperity)
- Oil/Gas, $14b to state economy
- Hydroelectric/ Geothermic power
- Tourism, 2 million tourist per year
- Fishing, employs 79 000 and contributes $2.2b to economy

13

Case Study; ALASKA
Threat of Climate Change?

NEWTOK, ANCHORAGE, ALSAKA
- Relocate, falling into river
- Move cost up to $130m