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Flashcards in glass ionomers 7 Deck (28):

Polyelectrolytic cements class:

1. Zinc polycarboxylate cements
2. Glass ionomer cements(GIC)



“glass” refers to the glassy ceramic particles and the glassy matrix (non-crystalline) of the set
material, while
= “ionomer” refers to ion-crosslinked polymer


Polyalkenoic or Polyalkenoate terminology

refers to polymer chain which incorporates alkenoic monomers such as acrylic acid, tartaric acid, maleic acid, etc.


Conditioning terminology

use of an acid with a low concentration, without hydroxyapatite crystals removal



Powder and liquid = dosage + mixing (many disadvantages)
• Predosed capsules and automatic mixing with the gun



The acid component (polyacid, -COOH, H+ donor) = concentrated aqueous solution of polymers and copolymers of some unsaturated carboxylic acids – LIQUID
1. The base component = silicate of Al, Ca and F, proton receivers (H+), donors of metallic ions – POWDER
3. +/- resin (the liquid has monomers) = resin modified
glass ionomers(RMGIC)

• Si O 29,0
• Al O3 16,6
• Ca F2 34,3
• Na3AlF6 5,0
• Al F3 5,3
• Al PO4 9,9 particles’ sizes
47,5 % solution of:
=>till 50μm for fillings =>till 20μm for lutting

Liquid – different copolymers of:
47,5 % solution of:
=>till 50μm for fillings =>till 20μm for lutting
tartaric acid= influences the
polyacrilic acid
itaconic acid = reduces the viscosity of the polyacrylic acid and thus preventing its gelation
working time and the setting time



acid – base reaction
OS•SiO2 + H2A → MA + SiO2+H2O
Glass oxides + acid → salt + sillica gel + water

There are 3 stages of the setting reaction, due to the gradual release of the glass ions – first of them being the Ca ions:
1. dissolution (Ion-leaching phase)
2. gelation (Hydrogel phase)
3. hardening (Polysalt gel phase)


1. Dissolution:

After mixing the liquid with the powder,
• The acid attacks the outer surface of the glass , which it will release cations –Al+++, Ca++, F+
• the released H ions of the carboxyl groups from the polyacid chains, diffuse into the glass and thus the cations will be released


2. Gelation

begins 5-10 min after mixing=> initial setting
This initial setting is owed to the quick action of the Ca ions which firstly react with the carboxyl groups of the acid (Ca bivalent, Al trivalent) → thus it results a gel phase of the GIC
!!! it’s a critical phase – it needs perfect isolation
• Thus:
• the Al ions may dissolve into saliva = the gel isn’t stable => reduced properties
• water loss from GIC = unfinished setting reaction
•water / blood sorption => aesthethic changes of the restoration, reduced mechanical properties


3. Hardening:

This process may last up to 7 days or several months
• generally it needs around 30 min for the Al ions to link within the network, and thus transforming the gel phase into a solid one (through cross-linking – because they are trivalents)
• GIC releases slowly after setting, Ca and F ions – with beneficial effects
• RMGIC has the possibility to simultaneously make a chemically /light induced polymerization



The glass composition has very important effects over the setting process and over the material’s handling:
- TheAl:Siratioishighercomparingtothatofsilicatecements= more reduced working time
- The tartaric acid reacts with the Ca ions prolonging the working time, but in the same time it stimulates the 3D-network formation with Al ions and thus it reduces the setting time
- Mixing time= 20sec
- Working time= 75sec
- Setting time = 2min
- Finishing only after = 7-10 min


advantages of Adhesion to the hard dental tissues

Major advantages:
2. a. Adhesion to the hard dental tissues
• Direct adhesion to the hard dental tissues
• Bulk application (not in successive layers as for the light-cured RBCs)
The –COOH groups of the polyacid chemically react :
- with–OHgroupsofthehydroxyapatitefromtheenamelordentin (replacing the Ca) OR with Ca from apatite
The formed bonds are => H bonds (reduced 2-7 MPa, but long-lasting if GIC is used for class V cav)
- -
Thefracturesarecohesive(withintheGICmasse) weakH+link=>thereducedtensionstrengthoftheGIC(7MPa)=> brittle material
The adhesion is more stronger to the enamel than to dentin!! => the
dentin needs to be conditioned


how to increase the efficiency of adhesion for gi

More efficient adhesion if:
• an acid is used to condition the dental tissues
• PAA (polyacrylic acid 10%) short time applied= clean the dental surface, removes the smear layer and exposes the collagen fibers (0,5-1μm) conditioner
It results a similar adhesion to that of the self-etch adhesive systems
DIFFERENCE – high molecular weight of the polycarboxylic polymer which limits its capacity to infiltrate into the dentin:
› thin hybrid layer,
› !!! they cannot infiltrate into decalcified dentin depth made with orthophosphoric acid (in this case it must NOT be used for GIC)


Adhesion to the other substrates

GICs adhere to the active polar surfaces:
- non-noble metal used for the PFM restorations
- They don’t adhere to the ceramic and noble metals
- GICs used for putting:their adhesion decreases with the increase of the viscosity surface won’t be glassy (dehydration=dessication)



Porous surface,more reduced for the RMGICs
- Roughness through:
- mechanical working (low speed; it needs continuous cooling)
- in time due to the oral cavity conditions
- micro fissures due to dehydration=dessication,soafteritssetting => protective varnish layer (NOT for RMGIC)
- Reduced translucency compared to RBC
- Colourchangeintime,fasterthanforRBCs(watersorption), especially on their surface, not on the margins
- Marginal pigmentation is more reduced => less stress during setting at the interface (the acid-base reaction generates a more reduced polymerization shrinkage than for linear polymerization)


4. Mechanical properties

Max values at 24h after setting reaction
Mechanical properties:
- more reduced than those of RBCs and amalgam (brittle, reduced hardness)
- oftheRMGICs>oftheGICs(conventional) Hardness:
- increases with the powder/ liquid ratio
- coarsefinishingafter7min.fromitssetting(theRMGICscan be finished immediately)
- final finishing and polishing after 24h


Chemical proprieties

The solubility is influenced by :
- the solubility of the cement’s composition
(more reduced at the RMGICs)
- The elapsed time from its application - Features of the oral environment
- for Al,Ca,F,R-COO ions–varnish protection
- absorbs water=>maximum in the 1st hour after setting,and more
reduced after
- bigger initially,than that of ZOPC and polycarboxylate cements(perfect
- !!!!NOTrinsingoftheresidualGIlutingcements
- After their setting=>less soluble cements


Biologic properties

The F ions are continuously released due to the solubility processindicatedforpersonswith many decays and also for children
- Reduced toxic reactions with the pulp and biocompatible with the marginal parodontium => indicated for decidual teeth (where there is a very thin layer of dentin-1mm=> it is necessary a Ca hydroxide liner)


RMGIC (Resin-modified glassionomers cements) appeared due to go disadvantages

RMGICs appeared due to GICs’ disadvantages : • short working time and long setting time
• brittleness and reduced hardness
• susceptible to drying and fissures(dessication) • reduced strength to acid attack
Embeding of light-cured resins Presentation:
• powder (same from GIC) + liquid(same GIC+ hydrophilic monomers HEMA + CQ)


rmgic seeing reaction

acid – base + light-curing
The acid –base reaction is slowly initiated = longer working time - fast setting through polymerization HEMA (30s)
- final setting in 15-20 min
- there are also, capsules for self-cured GICs


RMGIC – PROPERTIES (compared with GICs) Advantages

better strength, bigger hardness
- prolonged working time, short setting time
- immediate finishing and polishing
- dehydration strength
- good adhesion, increases the flexibility of the adhesive bond


RMGIC – PROPERTIES (compared with GICs Disadvantages:

layering technique for the light-cured ones (as for RBCs)
- higher polymerization shrinkage-stress over the adhesive bond - HEMA –citotoxic and allergen
- different compositions = Very important to respect in detail the indications of every product !!!!!


clinical applications

erosive/abrasive cervical dental lesions
• cls III cavities with the exposure of the root dentin
• cls I and cls II cavities of decidual teeth
• temporary fillings for permanent teeth
• liners or bases
• lutting of prosthetic restorations
• Geriatric and Pediatric Restorations
• Final Restorations in Low Stress Areas
• Emergency Restorative (Intermediate)
• Caries Control Restorations (Min. Intervention)
• Core Build-Up or Dentin Substitute
• Long T erm T emporary Restoration


types of gi

Type I –lutting cements
Type II – Restaurative cements
Type III – Lining cements


Type I –lutting cements Indications

lutting of crowns, inlays, onlays, posts/pins, bracket,
metallic adhesive bridges


Type II – Restaurative cements

II.1. aesthetic (GIC and RMGIC) Indications: cls I, II cavity-decidual teeth Appearance: dull
a) Application (GIC conventional) :
+/- acid conditioning -glassionomer application -setting (2-4min)
-protective varnish application
b) RMGIC (resin modified glass ionomers) Indications: cls V, erosions with
caries problems
Glassy appearance
Application: -acid conditioning!!
-rinsing, drying
-NOT bonding(adhesive system) because it will decrease the F release
-RMGIC application
-setting through acid-base reaction + self/light-curing
-without protective varnish


Type III – Lining cements

Glassionomers (GICs)
- Light-cured RMGICs
Indications: base fillings under RBCs or amalgam


Benefits of Glass Ionomer

Direct Bond to the tooth structure- no bonding agent required
• Bonds to moist tooth
• Fluoride protection
• Excellent marginal seal - no shrinkage
• Thermal expansion equal to that of the tooth
• Biocompatable - Ideal match for dentin