The intensification of world-wide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events happening many miles away and vice versa.
Think global, act local.
Globalisation can be seen in 4 key areas of social life
- The economy
- social arrangements for the production, exchange, distribution and consumption of goods and services
- The polity
- social arrangements for concentration and application of power (military and police)
- social arrangements for production and exchange of symbols that represent facts, meanings, beliefs
- The environment
- political, economic and legal arrangements in the inert national issues and aspects of world resources
Global economy run by huge corporations more powerful than governments
Wealthier than nation states
Decisions by global companies have local effects
Rise of global companies concerned with governance and surveillance
e.g. European Parliament
Undermines nation state.
Some nation states have been unable to protect its citizens from global economies.
Impacts on ability to provide education
- Impacting on convergence of education systems and curriculum content.
- Hard to retain localised systems that don’t comply with international education standards
- International chains of secondary schools
Held et al 1999
3 approaches to globalisation
- argue that globalisation is constructing new forms of organisation that will eventually supplant traditional nation states
- argue that there is less homogeneity across nations and more regionalisation. Greater disparities exist and poorer states are being marginalised.
- argue that globalisation is the driving force reshaping modern world order but direction and outcomes and not clear.
Global education culture is based on 4 values
- Equality of opportunity and social justice
- promotion of wide spread mass education up to uni and advancing that education cannot just be for the upper classes
- Development of modern individuals for the collective good
- education benefits society as a whole more than it benefits the individual. Important aspect of neoliberalism . Ultra-capitalist regimes put such emphasis on educational reform
- Dominance of academic intelligence
- primary tool for social mobility’s opposed to social capital and class. Includes standardising of curricular.
- Meritocratic achievement and education credentialism
- dictates certain uniform structures and practices in education systems world-wide
Strategy that governments use to justify reforms which they want to promote.
High in the media.
It worked in this country so why won’t it work here.
Levin 1998 talks of an epidemic of education policy
It is similar to the spread of disease.
- there is a causative agent (new idea or policy solution)
- a host (education system)
- and the environment
All have to be active for the policy transfer to occur.
Generic global policy is based on 5 principles
Ball 2008 describes this paradigm as being based on the following 5 principles:
- efficiency, effectiveness and quality
- decentralisation of power to schools
- cost-effectiveness in the provision of public funds
- centralised strategies to respond to external pressures and demands.
- setting targets and standards
All could not have happened without technology.
Phillips and Ochs 2004 model for policy borrowing
Cycle starts with:
1. Cross-national attraction: impulses and externalising potential. (Pre-conditions for change)
arise because of:
- internal dissatisfaction of parents, teachers, students,
- systematic collapse (failure of some provision)
- negative external evaluation (international comparisons of student achievement)
- economic change/competition
- knowledge/skills innovation (responses to new technologies)
- Decision (4 main categories)
- theoretical - broad policy decisions (e.g. creating world class system). Not immediately open to evaluation
- realistic/practical - policies which have been demonstrated to be effective elsewhere and could be implemented (e.g. whole class teaching)
- Quick fix solutions imported in crisis situations - often brought in by consultants
- Phoney - brought in my politicians after a brief visit overseas for immediate political effect.
- depends on conditions of borrower country. Ability and willingness of key actors to take on change are important here.
- Internalisation also know as globalisation. Policy adapted to local context.
Reasons for the apparent commonalities leading to a convergence in education structures and practices (AEM050)
- A legitimation crisis - a growing demand for equity as well as the need for am more educated workforce to meet processes of modernisation and global competition.
- Concern about effectiveness - technical and scientific changes. To what extent does the curriculum support processes of modernisation.
- MOE Launches new curriculum created by McGraw-Hill (this will enhance the knowledge and skills students possess).
- National Science and Innovation strategy provides young people with up-to-date knowledge and skills
- Industrial Revolution X STEM initiative (preparing students with innovative skills for the future economy of the UAE).
- Concern about efficiency - higher demand on proportion of national income spent on education raises questions about efficiency
- Managerial revolution - decentralisation is common theme. To be most effective decision making should be at the lowest possible organisation level.
- The emergence of educational regimes - controlled planning of education aimed to achieve ideological and political goals is new.
- Billingual schooling (will improve English literacy as well as Arabic helping students to be future ready)
- Arabic, Islamic, UAE Social Studies and Moral Education, whilst it forces curriculum changes and review and pouts pressure on curriculum time for private schools, the content is valid and worthy for all UAE citizens to study.
- Ownership of education - increased pressure for responsibility for policy to shift from teachers to wider stakeholders at national and community level (Ball 2007)
see Kelly article
KHDA School of Hearts Initiative focusing on school environments, personal wellness and peer-support.
2017 Health & Well-being census
Inclusive Education Policy Framework, supports education for all.
UAE impact of globalisation
Plank and Keesler (2009) discuss the concept of a ‘shrinking state’, however, the UAE have put measures in place to retain the localized system and curricular content while also adapting to international educational standards.
The rigor and attachment to the inspection framework means the international schools are finding it ever more difficult to retain their curriculum and not inherent local curriculum reforms.
“Educational theory has little place in educational policy formation” – critically discuss this statement.
Discuss the relationship between educational policies and the processes associated with ‘globalization’.
Evaluate competing explanationsrelatingthe forces of globalisation to education.
’Leadership’ or ‘management’ in education assumes a business rather than a learning based system/philosophy where ‘targets’ and ‘efficiency’ take a superior place to learning”. Discuss this statement
Bryk (2012) suggests that ‘everything works somewhere, nothing works everywhere’. Discuss this with reference to ‘policy borrowing’ and the globalisation of education ideas.
“globalization will undermine the role of the nation state and lead to fragmentation and localization” (p85 AEM050),