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Year 8 Science Exam Semester 2 > Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glossary Deck (117):
1

Crystal

Solid that has a variety of special shapes.

2

Extrusive igneous rocks

Igneous rocks that are formed on the surface of earth

3

Geology

Study of rock, their history and the processes that form and change them

4

Igneous rocks

Rocks formed from the cooling of magma.

5

Interlocking crystals

Crystals that lock together and grow into each other in a rock.

6

Intrusive igneous rocks

Igneous rocks that form below the surface of the earth

7

Lava

Molten rock reaching the earths surface

8

Magma

Molten rock that does not reach the earths surface

9

Mantle

Layer of earth below the crust

10

Minerals

Chemical substances found in rocks

11

Acid rain

Rain water that includes acid from pollution in the air

12

Agents of erosion

Factors that cause erosion-
Water
Wind
Ice

13

Chemical weathering

Water or chemicals in the water and air reacting and breaking down rock

14

Consistency

Tendency of soil particles to stick together

15

Erosion

Removal of weathered rock particles away from the site of the weathering

16

Permeability

A measure of how fast water enters the soil

17

Physical weathering

Breakdown of rocks by physical processes

18

Pore spaces

Amount of space in the soil that can be filled with air and water

19

Sedimentation

Process of water or wind depositing eroded rock particles

20

Structure

How well the soil particles join to form lumps

21

Texture

The size of the particles that make up the soil

22

Water-holding capacity

Measure of how much water a particular amount of soil can hold

23

Weathering

The physical and chemical processes that break rocks down into smaller pieces

24

What is a Flame Test?

The colour a mineral glows when heated to a high temperature in a flame.

25

What is hardness?

The physical property based on the ability to scratch particular minerals.

26

What are hydrothermal fluids?

They are superheated liquids in the earths crust

27

What is the lustre?

How shiny a mineral is

28

What is a mineral?

A naturally occurring liquid or solid in the Earth's crust but not including oil or coal.

29

What is an ore?

A rock containing mineral

30

What is an ore body?

A large deposit of ore

31

What is a streak?

The colour of the mark left by scraping the mineral on a white unglazed tile.

32

What is a core sample?

A drilled sample of rock.

33

What is the cross section?

The side view

34

What is an electro magnetic survey?

A survey that measures the effects of applying a magnetic field to the earth.

35

What is geochemistry?

The use of chemistry to show what minerals are present in an area.

36

What is a geological map?

A map that shows the geology of an are, including the appearance of the ore bodies from above and from the side.

37

What is a gravimeter?

A very sensitive instrument that measures very small differences in the earths gravitational pull.

38

What is a magnetometer?

A device that measures magnetic field strength.

39

What is a satellite image?

An image that is created using data from satellites that detect electromagnetic radiation from Earth.

40

What is a seismic survey?

What a shock wave is sent into the ground surface, and the reflected sound waves are recorded.

41

What is an adit?

A horizontal tunnel through a mountain

42

Wha is a decline?

An underground shaft that is on a slope, allowing vehicles to drive up and down.

43

What isdredging?

A process involving a floating platform that mixes water and rocks or soil to seperate minerals.

44

What is a leach solution?

A solution pumped into the ground to dissolve minerals in the rocks.

45

What is petroleum?

Oil and gas occurring naturally in rocks.

46

What is a petroleum well?

A narrow hole drilled into the rock, allowing oil and gas to escape to the surface.

47

What is an open-cut mine?

A large pit dug into the ground surface.

48

What is a vertical shaft?

A narrow tunnel dug vertically downwards into the earth.

49

What are chemical sedimentary rocks?

Sedimentary rocks that form when dissolved materials precipitate from solution.

50

What are clastic sedimentary rocks?

Sedimentary rocks made from weathered sediments of other rocks.

51

What are fossils?

They are preserved remains of living organisms.

52

What are natural cements?

Chemicals that can flow around sediments in water and then set like cement.

53

What are organic sedimentary rocks?

Rocks that form by the accumulation of plant or animal debris, which is then cemented together.

54

What are sedimentary rocks?

Rocks made by sediments being cemented together.

55

What is contact metamorphism?

Metamorphism by contact with hit magma as it pushes through the mantle and crust.

56

What is foliation?

The process where minerals under pressure become squashed flat and the rock develops layers or bands.

57

What are metamorphic rocks?

Rocks formed when high temperatures and pressure alter existing rocks.

58

What is regional metamorphism?

Metamorphism over a wide area below the crust caused by huge movements of the earths crust.

59

What is the rock cycle?

A model geologists use to explain the endless cycle of change that rocks undergo as they change form one to form another.

60

What are tectonic plates?

Massive plates that make up the earths crust.

61

Boiling

A change of state where a liquid is heated and changes to a gas weighing the liquid.

62

Chemical change

A change that results in a new substance being formed.

63

Condensation

A change of state where a gas is cooled and forms a liquid.

64

Contraction

A decrease in size

65

Deposition

A change in state from gas to solid

66

Endothermic

Describes a process that absorbs energy form the surroundings

67

Evaporation

The change of state where a liquid changes to a gas at the surface of the liquid

68

Exothermic

Describes a process that gives off energy in the form of heat, light or sound.

69

Expansion

An increase in size

70

Freezing

The change of state from liquid to solid

71

Melting

The change of state when a solid is heated and forms a liquid

72

Physical change

A change that does not result in a new substance being produced

73

Precipitate

A solid formed during a chemical change

74

Solidification (freezing)

The change of state from liquid to solid

75

Solution

A mixture where the substances are mixed on the atomic level

76

Sublimation

A change of state from solid to gas

77

Diffusion

A process where two liquids or two gases mix due to the motion of their particles

78

Particle model

A simplified representation of solids, liquids and gases

79

Density

A measure of the mass per unit volume of a substance d=m/v (unit g/cm3)

80

Displaces

Pushes upwards as in pushed water upwards

81

Mass

Measures how much matter is in a substance (unit g)

82

Volume

Measures how much space is occupied by a substance (units: mL or cm3)

83

Atom

Smallest building block that make sup all substances

84

Chemical reaction

When atoms rearrange to form new substance

85

Formula equations

A type of chemical equation where the chemicals in the reaction are represented by their chemical formulas.

86

Molecule

A cluster of atoms

87

Products

The substances formed in chemical reactions

88

Reactants

The starting substances in chemical reactions

89

Word equations

A type of chemical equation where he chemicals are represented by the chemical names

90

Allotropes

Different forms of the same elements

91

Brittle

Easily crumbled or shattered

92

Ductile

Able to be stretched to form a wire

93

Elements

Substances made up of only one type of atom

94

Lattices

Grid-like structures of atoms

95

Malleable

Able to bent or hammered into new shapes

96

Metals

Substances that have a metallic shine, conduct heat and electricity , and can be hammered into sheets and drawn into wires.

97

Molecules

Clusters of atoms

98

Monatomic

Elements that consist of single atoms

99

Non-metals

Substances that are usually dull, do not conduct electricity and heat or crumble

100

Periodic table

A table that shows all of the known elements

101

Properties

The characteristics of a substance

102

Scanning tunnelling microscope

A microscope that can see atoms by scanning a tip across the surface of crystals and sensing the atoms as bumps on the surface

103

Alloys

Mixtures of a metal with other metals or non metals

104

Compounds

Substances made of lattices or identical molecules with two or more types of atoms

105

Immiscible

Liquids that do not mix

106

Miscible

Liquids that can be mixed

107

Mixtures

Any combination of two or more elements or compounds

108

Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom

109

Electrons

The negatively charged subatomic particles that form a cloud around the nucleus of an atom

110

Electron shell

Areas around the atom in which electrons spin

111

Mass number

The number of protons and neutrons in an atom

112

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

113

Model

A simplified representation

114

Neutrons

The neutral subatomic particles that sit in the nucleus of an atom with the protons.

115

Nucleus

The cluster of protons and neutrons at the centre of an atom

116

Protons

The positive subatomic particles that sit in the nucleus of an atom with the neutrons.

117

Subatomic particles

The particles that make up atoms- protons, neutrons and electrons