Flashcards in Glossary Deck (117):
Solid that has a variety of special shapes.
Extrusive igneous rocks
Igneous rocks that are formed on the surface of earth
Study of rock, their history and the processes that form and change them
Rocks formed from the cooling of magma.
Crystals that lock together and grow into each other in a rock.
Intrusive igneous rocks
Igneous rocks that form below the surface of the earth
Molten rock reaching the earths surface
Molten rock that does not reach the earths surface
Layer of earth below the crust
Chemical substances found in rocks
Rain water that includes acid from pollution in the air
Agents of erosion
Factors that cause erosion-
Water or chemicals in the water and air reacting and breaking down rock
Tendency of soil particles to stick together
Removal of weathered rock particles away from the site of the weathering
A measure of how fast water enters the soil
Breakdown of rocks by physical processes
Amount of space in the soil that can be filled with air and water
Process of water or wind depositing eroded rock particles
How well the soil particles join to form lumps
The size of the particles that make up the soil
Measure of how much water a particular amount of soil can hold
The physical and chemical processes that break rocks down into smaller pieces
What is a Flame Test?
The colour a mineral glows when heated to a high temperature in a flame.
What is hardness?
The physical property based on the ability to scratch particular minerals.
What are hydrothermal fluids?
They are superheated liquids in the earths crust
What is the lustre?
How shiny a mineral is
What is a mineral?
A naturally occurring liquid or solid in the Earth's crust but not including oil or coal.
What is an ore?
A rock containing mineral
What is an ore body?
A large deposit of ore
What is a streak?
The colour of the mark left by scraping the mineral on a white unglazed tile.
What is a core sample?
A drilled sample of rock.
What is the cross section?
The side view
What is an electro magnetic survey?
A survey that measures the effects of applying a magnetic field to the earth.
What is geochemistry?
The use of chemistry to show what minerals are present in an area.
What is a geological map?
A map that shows the geology of an are, including the appearance of the ore bodies from above and from the side.
What is a gravimeter?
A very sensitive instrument that measures very small differences in the earths gravitational pull.
What is a magnetometer?
A device that measures magnetic field strength.
What is a satellite image?
An image that is created using data from satellites that detect electromagnetic radiation from Earth.
What is a seismic survey?
What a shock wave is sent into the ground surface, and the reflected sound waves are recorded.
What is an adit?
A horizontal tunnel through a mountain
Wha is a decline?
An underground shaft that is on a slope, allowing vehicles to drive up and down.
A process involving a floating platform that mixes water and rocks or soil to seperate minerals.
What is a leach solution?
A solution pumped into the ground to dissolve minerals in the rocks.
What is petroleum?
Oil and gas occurring naturally in rocks.
What is a petroleum well?
A narrow hole drilled into the rock, allowing oil and gas to escape to the surface.
What is an open-cut mine?
A large pit dug into the ground surface.
What is a vertical shaft?
A narrow tunnel dug vertically downwards into the earth.
What are chemical sedimentary rocks?
Sedimentary rocks that form when dissolved materials precipitate from solution.
What are clastic sedimentary rocks?
Sedimentary rocks made from weathered sediments of other rocks.
What are fossils?
They are preserved remains of living organisms.
What are natural cements?
Chemicals that can flow around sediments in water and then set like cement.
What are organic sedimentary rocks?
Rocks that form by the accumulation of plant or animal debris, which is then cemented together.
What are sedimentary rocks?
Rocks made by sediments being cemented together.
What is contact metamorphism?
Metamorphism by contact with hit magma as it pushes through the mantle and crust.
What is foliation?
The process where minerals under pressure become squashed flat and the rock develops layers or bands.
What are metamorphic rocks?
Rocks formed when high temperatures and pressure alter existing rocks.
What is regional metamorphism?
Metamorphism over a wide area below the crust caused by huge movements of the earths crust.
What is the rock cycle?
A model geologists use to explain the endless cycle of change that rocks undergo as they change form one to form another.
What are tectonic plates?
Massive plates that make up the earths crust.
A change of state where a liquid is heated and changes to a gas weighing the liquid.
A change that results in a new substance being formed.
A change of state where a gas is cooled and forms a liquid.
A decrease in size
A change in state from gas to solid
Describes a process that absorbs energy form the surroundings
The change of state where a liquid changes to a gas at the surface of the liquid
Describes a process that gives off energy in the form of heat, light or sound.
An increase in size
The change of state from liquid to solid
The change of state when a solid is heated and forms a liquid
A change that does not result in a new substance being produced
A solid formed during a chemical change
The change of state from liquid to solid
A mixture where the substances are mixed on the atomic level
A change of state from solid to gas
A process where two liquids or two gases mix due to the motion of their particles
A simplified representation of solids, liquids and gases
A measure of the mass per unit volume of a substance d=m/v (unit g/cm3)
Pushes upwards as in pushed water upwards
Measures how much matter is in a substance (unit g)
Measures how much space is occupied by a substance (units: mL or cm3)
Smallest building block that make sup all substances
When atoms rearrange to form new substance
A type of chemical equation where the chemicals in the reaction are represented by their chemical formulas.
A cluster of atoms
The substances formed in chemical reactions
The starting substances in chemical reactions
A type of chemical equation where he chemicals are represented by the chemical names
Different forms of the same elements
Easily crumbled or shattered
Able to be stretched to form a wire
Substances made up of only one type of atom
Grid-like structures of atoms
Able to bent or hammered into new shapes
Substances that have a metallic shine, conduct heat and electricity , and can be hammered into sheets and drawn into wires.
Clusters of atoms
Elements that consist of single atoms
Substances that are usually dull, do not conduct electricity and heat or crumble
A table that shows all of the known elements
The characteristics of a substance
Scanning tunnelling microscope
A microscope that can see atoms by scanning a tip across the surface of crystals and sensing the atoms as bumps on the surface
Mixtures of a metal with other metals or non metals
Substances made of lattices or identical molecules with two or more types of atoms
Liquids that do not mix
Liquids that can be mixed
Any combination of two or more elements or compounds
The number of protons in an atom
The negatively charged subatomic particles that form a cloud around the nucleus of an atom
Areas around the atom in which electrons spin
The number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Anything that has mass and takes up space
A simplified representation
The neutral subatomic particles that sit in the nucleus of an atom with the protons.
The cluster of protons and neutrons at the centre of an atom
The positive subatomic particles that sit in the nucleus of an atom with the neutrons.