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Flashcards in Glossary Deck (97):
1

Synapomorphies

Characters that join species together in a clade

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Clade

Group that includes ALL descendents of a common ancestor

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Homologous

shared ancestry between a pair of structures

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Analagous

organs have similar function that were not present in the last common ancestor but rather evolved separately

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Phylogeny

each taxon must have common descent, thus based on similarities and differences in physical or genetic characteristics

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Protists

is a general term that acknowledges the futility of placing unicellular eukaryotes in the plant or animal kingdoms

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Diploblastic

having two embryonic cell layers, ectoderm and endoderm but no mesoderm

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Triploblastic

having 3 embryonic cell layers, ectoderm and endoderm and mesoderm, which originates from the endoderm

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Monophyletic

in a clade, all the animals consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants
monoecious

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Metamerism

Condition of being composed of serially repeated parts (metameres/segments)

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Hydrostatic Skeleton

Body-cavity fluids confined by the body wall give support but, at the same time, the body remains flexible. Body-wall muscles act on incompressible fluid and facilitate movement.

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Parapodia

each of a number of paired muscular bristle-bearing appendages used in locomotion, sensation, or respiration

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Gnathostomes

Jawed vertebrate

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Ostracoderms

heavily armoured, jawless fish

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Cephalisation

concentration of sense organs into a head

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Animal definition

heterotrophic multicellular eukaryote without cell walls often with specific tissues, sexual reproduction and usually developing via cleavage, blastula and gastrulation, leading either directly to an adult or indirectly through metamorphosis

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Polymorphic

structure and function of two different types of individuals within the same organism

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Gastrulation

is the phase in embryotic development where the single layer blastula turns into 3 layers, with a ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

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Sessile

fixed in one place

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Osculum

= is where the water is pushed out in porifera

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Ostium

water comes in

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Spicule

form the skeleton for the sponge

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Spongocoel

water enters here though the pores and then exits through the osculum

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Choanocyte

pushed the water out with its flagella

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Asconoid

vase/pipe-shaped

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Syconoid

vase with folded walls

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Leuconoid

many chambers (majority of sponges)

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Zooxanthellae

lives in a symbiotic relationship with cnidarians providing much of the photosynthesis outputs to the organism

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Nematocysts

pressurised chambers ready to fire a harpoon-like poisonous thread with cnidarian

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protonephridia

ciliated tubules removing waste from Platyhelminths

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Hemocoel

primary body cavity of most invertebrates, containing circulatory fluid

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Acoelomate

don’t have a Coelom

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Pseudocoelomate

don’t have a Coelom, looks like they do but they dont

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Coelomate

animal that has a coelom

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Coelom

a body cavity that is positioned to surround and contain digestive tract and other organs

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Spiral Cleavage

arrangement of the blastomeres on an upper tier and lower tier

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Dioecious

having male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals

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Monoecious

having both male and female reproductive organs in the same individuals

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Lophophore

a feeding structure which is a crest of ciliated tentacles

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Trochophore

a small sphere looking type of larva

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Veliger

a planktonic larva for bivalve mollusca and sea snails and fresh water snails

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Metanephrida

an excretory gland found in annelids, mollusca and arthopods

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Protosome

Blastopore becomes mouth, Cleavage patterns: Eight-cell phase is determinable, Top half of cells will turn into top half of animal, Bottom half of animal will turn into bottom half of animal

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Deutersome

Blastopore becomes anus, Cleavage patterns: Eight cell stage is undetermined: Meaning that the fate of the cells have not been determined thus why we can have twins

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Zooids

an animal arising from another by budding or division, especially each of the individuals which make up a colonial organism and typically have different forms and functions

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Visceral mass

occurs in molluscs and is another word for coelom, as Visceral mass consists of the area where the digestive, excretory, reproductive and respiration systems are

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Ctenidia

gills for molluscs

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Neodermata

parasitic lifestyle for platyhelths

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Ectocochleate

shell outside of body

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Endocochleate

shell inside of body

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Prostomium

Contains sense organs in annelids

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Segmented trunk

Serially repetitive, First segment is peristomium

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Pygidium

Segment with anus

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Setae (Chaetae)

small chitinous bristles which project from the body of annelids, may sometimes be on the end of parapodia

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Nephrostome

Tube runs length of blood vessels, allows exchange of nutrients/waste with blood, Final waste excreted through nephridiopore or nephrostome

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Ecdysis

process of moulting

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Hemolypth

Arthropoda blood

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Biramous

appendages with 2 branches and associated with Crustaceans and trilobites

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Uniramous

= appendages with 1 branch, associated with Hexapods, Chelicerates and Myriapods

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Chelicerae

the first pair of appendages in the front of the mouth acting like claws

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Pedipalp

the second pair of appendages on a Chelicerates

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Cephalothorax

head and thorax combined

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Prosoma

a cephalothorax on a chelicerate

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Opisthosoma

abdomen of a chelicerate

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Chela

a pincer-like-claw on an arachnid or crustacean

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Antennule

small feeler

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Antenna

long feeler

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Rostrum

a beak-like projection, a prolongation of the head

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Telson

the last segment in the abdomen or a terminal appendage to it

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Uropod

= the sixth and last pair of abdominal appendages, forming part of the tail fan

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Pereopods

5 sets of swimming limbs attached to the Cephalothorax

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Pleopods

5 sets of swimming limbs attached to the abdomen

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Carapace

= the covering of the thoracic and abdominal somites

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Hemimetabolous

having no pupal stage in the transition from larva to adult

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Holometabolous

having a pupal stage in the transition from larva to adult

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Cryptobiosis

formation of a slow metabolic, dessicated, resting stage, called a “tun”

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Asexual budding

new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site

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Ampulla

controls the ability for the extension and retraction of the tube feet by water pressure

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Ossicle

small calcareous elements which makes up the support structure of a sea star

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Aristotle’s lantern

= feeding structure for the class Echinoidea (Sea urchins)

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Polyphyodonty

an animal whose teeth are continually replaced

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Altricial young

young which are not able to move around on their own

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Precocial young

young are able to move around on their own

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Synapsid Skull

Has a lateral temporal opening (as well as an orbit)

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Anapsid Skull

Has a large orbit, with no lateral or dorsal temporal openings

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Diapsid Skull

Has a lateral and dorsal temporal opening (as well as an orbit)

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Agnatha

Jawless Fish

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Metazoa

Another word for the Animal kingdom as they are Eukaryotic and multicellular

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Schizocoelous

Mersodermal cells fill the blastocoel, forming a solid band of tissue around the gut cavity, then through programed cell death, space opens inside the mesodermal band (protosome)

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Enterocoelous

cells from the central portion of the gut lining begin to grow outwards as pouches, forming the mesoderm (deutersome)

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water Vascular system

hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration. The system is composed of canals connecting numerous tube feet

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What are the 5 main features of Chordata?

1. Notochord
2. Dorsal tubular nerve cord
3. Pharynchial
4. Endostyle (thyroid gland)
5. Postanal tail

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List the 7 reasons of why Arthopoda have been successful?

1. Cutucle (exoskeleton)
2. segmentation and tagmata
3. jointed appendages
4. Air piped directly to cells
5. Cephalisation & highly developed sensory system
6. Complex behaviour patterns
7. Reduced competition through metamorphosis

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Labrum

flap like structure infront of an hexapoda mouth

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Mandible

the teeth of the insect (help chew the food)

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Maxillary palp

helps place the food into the mandible

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Labial palp

helps place the food into the mandible (connected to the labrum, plus are the shortest of the arms)