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Flashcards in Government Deck (90):

Social contract

An agreement to create s government and follow its laws


The founders were the ...

Political leaders of the colonies


Civic virtue

Citizens who put the common good before their own selfish interests


Constitutional government

Government that is limited in its power by some framework



The unjust abuse government power


Republic government

A system of government where the people have control over the state


Republican government

A system of government where the people elector choose representatives to carry out their wishes


Declaration of Independence

A document by Thomas Jefferson that's lists the abuses king George lll had inflicted upon the British colonies


"Consent of the Governed"

The idea that Government gets its power from the people and the people have the right to take that permission away. Thomas Jefferson states that Government is being abusive you have the right to abolish or overthrow the government.


The purpose of government

The purpose of government is to protect natural rights - according to john Locke


Unalienable ( or natural) rights

These rights are so fundamental they can't be taken by anyone or anything .

John lockes fundamental rights ( life liberty and property )

Thomas Jeffersons fundamental rights ( life liberty and the pursuit of happiness)


Legislative branch

The "branch" makes the laws and are known as congress . The congress has two parts
The senate and the House of Representatives


State of nature

In John Locke's book "two treatises on Government"be he wrote about the state of nature - Is a world without government where there are no laws , natural rights, and is complete chaos. You don't have these things bc it's survival of the fittest .


U.S. Constitution

Written in 1787 by James Madison it establishes the framework for all government in the us


Bill of Rights

Proposed by James Madison in 1789 , they are the first 10 amendments to the constitution. The constitution has three branches of government.
Judicial branch
Legislature branch
The executive branch


1st Amendment

Freedom of speech, to worship , of the press , the right to assemble , and the right to complain to the government if you feel like your rights are violated


2nd Amendment

Right to bear arms (own gun)


3rd amendment

You are protected from having to keep keep soldiers on your home


4th Amendment

You are protected against unlawful searches and seizures


5th Amendment

You are protected against self incrimination, and guaranteed due process at the federal level.


7th Amendment

The right to a trail by jury shall be preserved when damages exceed $20


6th Amendment

Guaranteed a right to a speedy trail by an impartial jury of your peers and the right to confront the witness against you and the right to an attorney


8th Amendment

You are protected against cruel and unusual punishment


9th Amendment

You have the rights behind Thierry expressly mentioned in the constitution


10th Amendment

Declares that rights not specifically given to the federal government remain with the states and the people


13th Amendment

Outlaws slavery


14th Amendment

Guarantees equal protection under the law by state government


15th Amendment

Guarantees the right to vote


19th Amendment

Grants the right for women to vote


22 Amendment

Limits the president a 2 - 4 year terms


26 Amendment

Guarantees the right to vote to anyone over the age of 18


House of Representatives

435 members who serve for 2 year terms . MUST be 25 years old or older to serve as a representative. The house is based on proportional or population representation. Must live in your district and be a citizen for 7 years.


Proportional representation

Power in congress is based on the population of the state


Equal representation

Power in congress is shared equally among the states


The senate

100 members serve 6 years term. Every 2 years only 1/3 of the senate can get reelected. YOU MUST be 30 years old to serve as a senator . The senate is based on equal representation where all states have 2 votes . Must. Live in your district and be a citizen for 9 years


Who is the senate led by

The Vice President


The electoral college

The manner in which we elect a president. Based on the total representatives and senators each state has.
You neee 270 votes out of 538 to be elected president.


Battle ground states

Purple stars they swing between democratic and republican candidates


Powers of the the congress

The power to declare war, impose taxes, coin money ,


The judicial Branch

This branch interprets the laws. The highest court in the land is the United States Supreme Court. Nine members serve on the court and are appointed for life .


The executive branch

This branch before the laws. The chief executive of the United States - the president . You must be 35 years old to serve as president .


A constitution is considered a higher law if it...

Must be obeyed by those running the government


Dividing the government into different branches is considered as what

Separation of powers


The great compromise

Established the government of the us has having two houses and a strong national government; the house of the representatives and the senate . It was a compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey plans .


New Jersey plan

Called for a weak national government and one house of congress greed based on equal representation. All states have one vote


The Virginia plan

Two houses of congress And a strong national government based on population and proportional representation. Population means more power .


Miranda rights

Established by the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and the 8th amendments and the right of habeas corpus to protect your rights when you're arrested. First defined in the Supreme Court ( Miranda vs. Arizona )


Habeas corpus

Meaning to have the body, you have the right to be made aware of the charges against you. If you are not charged after a certain period of time, the authorities have to let you go.


Checks and balances

The three branches operate with a system of checks and balances which means that our government is designed that no one branch can overpower the other others


The supremacy clause

Found in the constitution, it establishes the federal constitution as the highest law in the nation



Power is balanced between two levels of government. In the United States our federal system balances power between the federal government and state government.


Three/ fifths clause

A compromise on the issue of slavery stating that blacks would only count as 3/5ths of a person .south. Supported counting them as whole people why the north didn't .


The anti federalists

Americans who were opposed to the new ratification of the us constitution. They feared strong central government and proposed a bill of rights to protect individual rights


The federalists

Supporters of the new constitution they argued for strong national government and were against the bill of rights.


The federalists papers

Written by James Madison, John jay , and Alexander Hamilton to support the argument for ratifying the constitution.


Federalist number 10

James Madison warns against factions or political parties. Argues that America is so large and diverse that Parties should not be able to form


Federalist number 51

Madison states that "if mean were angels there would be no need for government " but bc they aren't perfect we need a system or checks and balances to control government.


What did Locke think would happen without government?



What did Locke believed to be the purpose of Government



Bills are what

Ideas for laws that are proposed by members of congress



The House of Representatives
The senate
Sub committee
Back to the senate for s vote


What happens if a senator rejects the

If ones rejects it gets killed


What happens if the president doesn't agree

If he doesn't sign the bill he must veto it sending it back to congress


Congress powers

Power to establish post offices
Declare war , impose taxes , coin money


In what ways does the constitution limit the power of congress?

they separated the constitution into three different branches so one would not have the most power

the President can veto legislature passed by the Congress


The president has the power to...

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States,

president has the authority to negotiate treaties with other nations

power to sign or veto any legislation


Limitations of the president

congress is the one that has the power to declare war over other country. The Congress can always stop the President from declaring war

Senates must confirm treaties


Powers of the judiciary

The Judicial Branch decides argument about the meaning of laws, how they are applied and whether they break the rules of the U.S. Conititution


Ways the judiciary powers are limited by the constitution

limits on types of issues
Court plays a minor role in dealing with foreign policy


Advantages for Virginia plan

More power for bigger states

bicameral legislature

The number of representatives would be proportional to the populations of each state.

Control of the national government

More votes


Disadvantages for the Virginia plan

Smaller states didn't get equal power

president would manipulate his powers,

Less votes for smaller states

Less power for smaller states


Advantages for the New Jersey plan

Equal power

Weaker government

Power to collect taxes on products and stamps

Power to regulate trade among the states


Disadvantages for the New Jersey plan.

Unfair to bigger states

Equal power


Great compromise solution

Each side received a little and gave up a little . Smaller states got equal representation in the senate and bigger states for proportional representation in the house .

Congress had two houses ^^


To protect themselves fro
Abuse of powers the colonists created their own colonial government to include

Representative government


The system or checks and balances where to what ?

Prevent branches of government from abusing power


The Declaration of Independence was ..

An explanation of the colonist revolt against the Britain


The purpose of government is to what

Protect people's natural right


Diplomacy played an important role in the American Revolutionary War by ensuring that

France would provide loans and military assistance to the Americans


The authors of the articles of confederation feared a strong national government so they created a single branch of government...

The legislature


Difference between the articles of confederation and the constitution is that the constitution gives ..

Confess the right to act directly on the people


The purpose of the Philadelphia convention was to

Improve the articles of confederation


The framers resolved the conflict between the northern and southern states by

Allowing the slave trade to continue


Enumerated powers

Granted specially to congress by the constitution


A system used to pick the president

Electoral college


One way of ensuring the neutrality of the national judiciary was to

Allow judges to hold their offices fit life with good behavior


To get enough support for the ratification of the constitution the federalists agreement to

Add a bill of rights


The constitution was ratified by a vote of ...

State legislatures


A system of government in which power is shared by the national government the states government and the people is called a ....

Federal system


Political parties came about as a result of ....

Disagreements over the powers of the national government