Campaigns and sources of information used in order to correct a market failure and/or influence consumer behaviour. An example would be the ‘Don’t drink and drive’ campaigns.
A legally imposed maximum price in a market that suppliers cannot exceed - in an attempt to prevent the market price from rising above a certain level. To be effective a maximum price has to be set below the free market price.
A legally imposed price floor below which the normal market price cannot fall. To be effective the minimum price has to be set above the normal equilibrium price.
Polluter pays principle
The government may choose to intervene in a market to ensure that the firms and consumers who create negative externalities include them when making their decisions e.g. first parties are forced to internalise external costs & benefits through indirect taxes.
Permits allocated in an emissions trading system, for example each permit in the EU trading scheme allows a business to pollute 1 tonne of CO2.
A price ceiling is a regulated maximum price in a market – sellers cannot legally offer the product for sale at a price higher than the ceiling. To be effective, a ceiling must be set below the normal free market equilibrium price.
A price floor is a minimum price for example a minimum wage in the labour market. Sellers cannot legally under-cut the price floor.
Not all prices are set by the free-market forces of supply and demand. In Britain, a number of prices are affected by regulators who may impose a pricing formula on suppliers. Good examples are rail fares, the cost of postage stamps and water bills.
Government rules and laws that can control the behaviour of producers or consumers in a market.
Government-provided good or services - funded through tax revenue to provide goods which have positive externalities or are public goods.