Grammar Flashcards Preview

In Catilina Lists 11-33, Culture, and Grammar > Grammar > Flashcards

Flashcards in Grammar Deck (15):
1

Ablative of Respect

Julia is curly with respect to her hair.

2

Indirect Statement

verb of mind or mouth
infinitive of a verb in the statement
subject in the accusative
I think THAT you are stupid.
Putō tu esse fatum.

3

Absolute Ablative

4th principle part of a verb in the ablative and a noun in the ablative
Hīs verbīs dīcīs --> With these words
having been said

4

Independent Subjunctives

Jussive in 3rd person, Horatory in first
Let.....
e.g. Cenemus! (hort)
Let us eat!
Negative is introduced by nē
e.g. Ne hoc faciat! (juss)
Let him not do this!

Potential
express an action which might occur
Haec credas.
You might believe these things.
Habes, ubi ostentes illam praeclaram
parientiam famis et frigoris.
You have (the opportunity) where you
might show that famed endurace of
hunger and cold.
Past potentiality is expressed in the
imperfect subjunctive
Habēbas, ub ostenteres illam
praeclaram parientiam famis et frigoris.
You had (the opportunity) where you
might have show that famed
endurance of hunger and cold.

Deliberative
present and imperfect subjunctive
deliberate about something, often
a rhetorical question.
Quid iam faciam?
What am I to do now?
Negative introduced by non

Optative
future wish fulfillment
utinam or ut (utinam ne or ne)
Utinam ne Cicero scribiat!
Would that Cicero may not write!

5

Cum Clauses

Cum + subjunctive
Since/Because
if tamen later, although
Cum + indicative
When
Cum + ablative
With

6

Indirect Question

verb of mental action like knowing, asking, seeing, etc.
the main verb is followed by quis, quid, ubi, quomodo, quam, ut, etc.

subjunctive

If it is present or future tense (i.e., present, future or future perfect), then it is in primary sequence.

If it is in the past tense (i.e., imperfect, perfect or pluperfect), then it is in secondary sequence.

Present Infinitive - happens at the same time as
the main verb
Perfect Infinitive - happens before the main verb
Future infinitive - happens after the main verb

7

Indirect Command

moneo, impero, hortor, rogo, mando
subjunctive
If it is present or future tense (i.e., present, future or future perfect), then it is in primary sequence.

If it is in the past tense (i.e., imperfect, perfect or pluperfect), then it is in secondary sequence.

Present Infinitive - happens at the same time as
the main verb
Perfect Infinitive - happens before the main verb
Future infinitive - happens after the main verb

8

Result Clauses

ut (with the result that) + verb in the subjunctive
negative is ut..... non

Tam (so, so very)
sic (so, in such a way
ita (so, so very, in such a way)
tantus, -a, -um (so large, so great)

9

Purpose Clauses (ut/nē, quī)

ut (in order that) + subjunctive
negative is ne
relative Purpose Clause, qui, quae, quod may replace ut
comparative, ut is often replaced by quo

10

Fear Clauses

ne is positive
ut is negative
verbs of fear

He fears that he may lose the money
Timet ne pecuniam amittat.

11

Gerund/Gerundive

gerundive is an adjective
gerund is a noun

Gerund declension
(Nom . legere reading)
Gen. legendi - of reading
Dat. legendo - to/for reading
Acc. legendum - reading
Abl. legendo - from/with/in/by reading

Ad + the gerund will express purpose
The genitive of the gerund followed by causa will express purpose

Passive Periphrastic-gerundive with esse

12

Supine

erbal noun of the fourth declension, appearing only in the accusative singular (-um) and ablative singular (-ü)

after verbs of motion to express purpose

Legätös ad Caesarem mittunt rogätum auxilium. They send envoys to Caesar to ask for help.

The Supine in -ü is used with a few adjective
mirabile dictü: marvelous to relate

13

Conditional Sentences

Simple

Future More Vivid
and present or past indicative in both
as is
Future More Vivid with Emphatic protasis
future indicative in both
does....will do
Future Less Vivid
future perfect in protasis, future indicative in apodosis
should do.... would do....
Present Contrary to Fact
present subjunctive in both
were doing... would be doing...
Past Contrary to Fact
imperfect subjunctive in both
had done.... would have done
Mixed Contrary to Fact
pluperfect subjunctive in protasis, imperfect subjunctive in apodosis
had done, would be doing
Mixed Future
present subjunctive in protasis, future indicative on apodosis
should do.... will do

14

Substantive Clauses of Result

subjunctive
follow imperatives or impersonal verbs
imperative in the beginning or an
impersonal verb
make it so that x happens

15

Indirect Statement

Verb of doing/seeing/thinking/knowing
the subordinate clause has the subject in the accusative and the verb in the infinitive
Caeser said that the boy carries a book.
Caeser dixit puerum librum portare.
Sequence of tenses
Present Infinitive - happens at the same time as
the main verb
Perfect Infinitive - happens before the main verb
Future infinitive - happens after the main verb