Gross anatomy of the brain part 1 Flashcards Preview

MUSC Anatomy EXAM 3 > Gross anatomy of the brain part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gross anatomy of the brain part 1 Deck (63):
1

CNS is comprised of ___ and ___.

brain and spinal cord

2

PNS is comprised of what 2 things

nerves-axon bundles
ganglia-neuron cell body aggregates

3

what is ROSTRAL?

toward the front of the head

4

what is CEPHALIC?

Toward the head, can interchange with superior

5

What is CAUDAL?

toward the tail, can interchange with inferior

6

What is CONTRALATERAL?

Opposite sides (L ARM AND R WRIST)

7

What is IPSILATERAL?

Same side (R elbow and R wrist)

8

CNS forms from what embryonic tissue?

ECTODERM

9

what else is derived from the ectoderm, along with the CNS?

skin

10

When does CNS develop?

first 3 weeks after contraception

11

what are the first two things to develop in utero?

CNS and cardiovascular systems

12

1st week of CNS development

neural plate

13

2nd week of CNS development

invaginate to form the neural groove

14

3rd week of CNS development

neural groove closes and forms neural tube

15

neural tube is precursor to

whole Central Nervous System

16

what does neural tube become after development

neural canal in spinal cord

17

splitting off from neural tube in week 3 is what?

neural crest cells

18

neural crest cells are precursor to

dorsal root ganglion

19

notochord is precursor to

nucleus pulposus

20

cephalic end of neural tube has dilations, name the three starting at the most cephalic end

1. forebrain (prosencephalon)
2. midbrain (mesencephalon)
3. hindbrain (rhombencephalon)

21

what are the precursors to the brain?

primary brain vesicles:
1. forebrain (prosencephalon)
2. midbrain (mesenceohalon)
3. hindbrain (rhombencephalon)

22

secondary brain vesicles are derived from ____.

primary brain vesicles

23

secondary brain vesicles of the prosencephalon (forebrain)

telencephalon
diencephalon

24

secondary brain vesicles of the hindbrain (rhombencephalon)

metencephalon
myelencephalon

25

midbrain's (mesencephalon) secondary vesicle is called

mesencephalon

26

telencephalon becomes the ____.

cerebral cortex

27

diencephalon becomes the ___.

thalamus and hypothalamus

28

mesencephalon becomes the ___.

midbrain (stays midbrain)

29

metencephalon becomes the ___.

cerebellum and pons

30

referred to as the little brain

cerebellum

31

myelencephalon becomes the ___.

medulla (medulla oblongata)

32

structures on the brain stem

midbrain
pons
medulla

33

dividing point between brainstem and spinal cord

foramen magnum

34

above foramen magnum

brainstem

35

below foramen magnum

spinal cord

36

what overlies brainstem posteriorly?

cerebellum

37

bulging part of brainstem

pons

38

what controls our breathing and cardiovascular reflexes?

brainstem

39

people have to go on artificial breathing (ventilator) if there is a compromise to this

brainstem

40

covering over dorsal brainstem

tectum

41

2 superior colliculi and 2 inferior colliculi make up ____.

corpora quadrigeminae

42

tectum has four "bumps", what are they?

2 superior colliculi and 2 inferior colliculi

43

structure associated with startle reflex

inferior colliculi

44

superior colliculi is associated with what reflexes?

vision and vision responses (orientation to visual responses)

45

what carries information between the brainstem and cerebellum?

peduncles

46

3 pairs of cerebellar peduncles

superior, middle, inferior

47

peduncles are a collection of _____.

axons

48

dorsal columns of the medulla carry tactile information to brain, what 4 senses things are associated with it?

stereognosis
2 point discrimination
kinesthesia
vibration

49

ability to hold something in hand and be able to tell shape without looking at it

stereognosis

50

ability to tell the difference between 2 points close together on body

2 point discrimination

51

ability to know where limbs are in space without looking at them

kinesthesia

52

on medulla, the lines on bottom of the brainstem are called the ____.

dorsal columns

53

dorsal columns associated with lower extremity and lower limbs

medial dorsal columns

54

dorsal columns associated with upper extremity and upper limbs

lateral dorsal columns

55

on right side of brain, peduncles aren't visible because what structure is covering it?

CEREBELLUM

56

4th ventricle overlies the ___ and ___.

pons and medulla

57

what is contained in the ventricles?

CSF

58

4th ventricle cavity/depression is referred to as ___.

rhomboid fossa

59

upper portion of rhomboid fossa overlies who structure?

pons

60

lower portion of rhomboid fossa overlies who structure?

dorsal aspect of medulla

61

clusters of axon on lateral side of midbrain is called ___,

cerebral peduncles

62

what fibers do the cerebral peduncles carry?

fibers of the pyramidal motor system (voluntary motor)

63

pyramidal motor system starts in the ___.

cerebral cortex