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Sophomore 2 Test 1 > Group > Flashcards

Flashcards in Group Deck (86):
1

Membership of a group is usually formed by what 2 ways?

1. By chance = born into the a group (royalty)
2. Circumstance = a result of life-cycle events that a person may or may not have control over

2

Advantages of Groups

1. Group members learn from each other by sharing experiences
2. More than one group member can participate at a time
3. Ideal for most settings
4. Groups can also vary in purpose

3

How can groups vary in purpose?

Groups can be of a social purpose, such as a ballgame or a concert. They could also range all the way to an intensive psychotherapy group

4

Open Group

- Permits termination of members at different points and their substitution by new members
- Typical on inpatient units
- Example: stress management group that is part of an ongoing program in an inpatient group

5

Closed Group

- Members begin and end the group at the same time
- No new members can join or be admitted
- Meet weekly for a specified period
- Example: outpatient smoking cessation therapy, psychotherapy, psychoeducation groups

6

Very Small Groups

Dyads (two people) and Triads (three people)

- Can provide a richer personal experience

7

Small Groups

Usually no more than 7 members

8

Advantages of Small Groups

1. Great for complex emotional problems
2. Group becomes more cohesive
3. There is less likelihood of subgroup formation
4. Can provide a more intimate experience than larger groups

9

Disadvantages of Small Groups

Cannot easily withstand the loss of a group member

10

Large Groups

- More than 8-10 members
- Often seen in the workplace
- Effective for specific problems or issues
- Can be ongoing and open ended

11

Advantages of Larger Groups

1. Provide more learning opportunities to learn from others in the group
2. Can provide diverse life experiences, which provide an increase in problem solving

12

Disadvantages of Larger Groups

1. Can form subgroups (can make it difficult to develop cohesiveness in the group)
2. Less time to offer each member (if there are more members there is less time the group members have to speak and less time to problem solve)

13

How should chairs be arranged in group therapy?

Chairs should be arranged in a circle with no table. There should be no assigned seats.

14

Autocratic Leadership: Focus

Focus is on the leader, not the members

15

Autocratic Leadership: Task Strategy

Members are persuaded to adopt leader's ideas

16

Autocratic Leadership: Member Participation

Limited

17

Autocratic Leadership: Individual Creativity

Stifled

18

Autocratic Leadership: Member Enthusiasm and Morale

Low

19

Autocratic Leadership: Group Cohesiveness

Low

20

Autocratic Leadership: Productivity

High

21

Autocratic Leadership: Individual Motivation

Low; tend to work only when leader is present to urge them to do so

22

When is it good to have a group where there is a autocratic leader?

For new groups

23

Democratic Leadership: Focus

Members

24

Democratic Leadership: Task Strategy

Members engage in group problem solving

25

Democratic Leadership: Members Participation

Unlimited

26

Democratic Leadership: Individual Creativity

Encouraged

27

Democratic Leadership: Member Enthusiasm and Morale

High

28

Democratic Leadership: Group Cohesiveness

High

29

Democratic Leadership: Productivity

High (but not as high as autocratic)

30

Democratic Leadership: Individual Motivation

High

31

Co-Leadership

When 2 people share responsibility for leading the group, is useful in most groups as long as co-leaders attend all sessions and maintain open communication. Co-leadership works well when the co-leaders plan together and meet before and after each session to discuss the group process

32

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Focus

Undetermined

33

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Task Strategy

Not defined

34

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Members Participation

Inconsistent

35

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Individual Creativity

Not addressed

36

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Member Enthusiasm and Morale

Low

37

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Group Cohesiveness

Low

38

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Productivity

Low

39

Laissez-Fare Leadership: Individual Motivation

Low (due to feelings from lack of direction)

40

Special Functions of a Group

1. Socialization
2. Support
3. Task Completion
4. Camaraderie
5. Informational
6. Normative
7. Empowerment
8. Governance

41

Special Functions of a Group: Socialization

Teaches social norms

42

Special Functions of a Group: Support

Available in a time of need

43

Special Functions of a Group: Task Completion

Provide assistance in tasks which are beyond the control of one person

44

Special Functions of a Group: Camaraderie

Provides joy and pleasure that one may seek from interaction with others

45

Special Functions of a Group: Informational

Learning opportunities are provided in the group

46

Special Functions of a Group: Normative

Refers to a way that members enforce established norms within the group

47

Special Functions of a Group: Empowerment

Provides support to other members who seek to bring about change

48

Special Functions of a Group: Governance

Formation of committees that report to a larger group of members within the group

49

Stages of Groups Development

1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
5. Adjourning (mourning)

50

Forming Stage of Group Development

- Task/purpose of group is defined
- Connect with others, desires acceptance, avoiding conflict defines these early groups
- Members gather commonalities and differences as they attempt to know one another
- Leader is main connection and necessary for direction

51

Storming Stage of Group Development

- Important issues are addressed
- Conflict arises
- Personal relations may interfere with task at hand
- Domination may occur with some members while others remain silent
- Rules and structure are helpful
- Members may challenge the role of the leader

52

Norming Stage of Group Development

- Members know one another and rules of engagement are evident
- Sense of group identity and cohesion
- Members resist change: could lead to a group breakup or return to the previous stage or storming
- Leadership is shared

53

Performing Stage of Group Development

- Characterized by: loyalty, flexibility, interdependence, and productivity
- Balance between focus on work and focus on the welfare of group members

54

Adjourning/Mourning Stage of Group Development

- Ready to disband, tasks are terminated, disengagement of relationships
- Accomplishments are recognized
- Members are pleased to have been part of a group
- Sense of loss is an inevitable consequence

55

The 2 official/formal group roles

1. Leader
2. Member

56

Task Roles

Individuals who are concerned about the purpose of the group and "keeping things on task"

57

Examples of Task Roles

- Information seeker who seeks clarification
- Recorder keeps the minutes

58

Maintenance Roles

Assumed by those who keep the group together. These members make sure that the group gets along with each other and maintains the peace if conflict erupts. Maintenance role members are interested in maintaining the cohesiveness of the group

59

Examples of Maintenance Roles

- Harmonizer: mediates differences among members and relieves tension in conflict situations
- Compromiser: operates from within a conflict and may yield status or admit error to maintain group harmony

60

Individual/Personal Roles of a Group

1. Aggressor
2. Blocker
3. Dominator
4. Help-Seeker
5. Monopolizer
6. Playboy
7. Seducer
8. Mute or Silent Member
9. Recognition Seeker

61

Aggressor

Expresses negativism and hostility toward other members; may use sarcasm in effort too degrade the status of others

62

Blocker

Resists group efforts; demonstrates rigid and sometimes irrational behaviors that impede group progress

63

Dominator

Manipulates others to gain control; behaves in an authoritarian manner

64

Help-Seeker

Uses group to gain sympathy from others; seeks to increase self-confidence from group feedback; lacks concern for others or for the group as a whole

65

Monopolizer

Maintains control of the group by dominating the conversation

66

Playboy

Distracts others from the task; jokes, introduces irrelevant topics

67

Seducer

Shares intimate details about self with group; may frighten others in the group and inhibit group progress with excessive premature self-disclosure

68

Mute or Silent Member

Does not participate verbally; remains silent for a number of reasons - may feel uncomfortable with self disclosure or may be seeking attention through silence

69

Recognition Seeker

Talks about personal accomplishments to gain attention to self

70

Psychoeducation Groups

- Purpose: to enhance knowledge, improve skills, and solve problems
- Focus: enhance education
- The group leader develops a lesson plan for each session
- Time limited and usually lasts only a few session

71

Task Groups

- Purpose: to accomplish a specific outcome
- Focus: problem solving and decision making
- Typically time limited and have a common goal
- Purpose of the leader is to facilitate team building and cooperation

72

Self-Help Groups

- Purpose: allows patients to verbalize fears
- Focus: provides a relief of isolation while receiving comfort in like-situations
- Brings people together with common concerns
- May be facilitated by professional group therapists who have diverse styles

73

Example of Self-Help Groups

1. Alcoholics Anonymous
2. Overeaters Anonymous
3. MADD

74

Benefits of Groups Therapy (11)

1. The instillation of hope
2. Universality
3. The imparting of information
4. Altruism
5. The corrective recapitulation of the primary family group
6. The development of socializing techniques
7. Imitative behavior
8. Interpersonal learning
9. Groups cohesiveness
10. Catharsis
11. Existential factors

75

Benefits of Groups Therapy: The Instillation of Hope

Observation of others with similar problems provides hope that problems can be solved

76

Benefits of Groups Therapy: Universality

Awareness of not being alone in the problems, feelings and anxiety that they are feeling

77

Benefits of Groups Therapy: The Imparting of Information

Knowledge is gained through formal instruction and the sharing of advice and suggestions from others in group

78

Benefits of Groups Therapy: Altruism

Assimilated by group members through sharing concern for each other - which promotes a positive self-image and self-growth

79

Benefits of Groups Therapy: The Corrective Recapitulation of the Primary Family Group

Experience early family conflicts that remain unresolved. Attempts at resolution are promoted through feedback and exploration

80

Benefits of Groups Therapy: The Development of Socializing Techniques

Correcting maladaptive social behaviors through interaction and feedback

81

Benefits of Groups Therapy: Imitative Behavior

Where individuals imitate positive psychosocial behaviors that they wish to develop for themselves

82

Benefits of Groups Therapy: Interpersonal Learning

The group offers many and varied opportunities for interaction with other people to gain insight regarding how one perceives and is being perceived by others

83

Benefits of Groups Therapy: Group Cohesiveness

A sense of belonging that separates the individual from the group. Develops a common feeling that both group and individual are a value to each other

84

Benefits of Groups Therapy: Catharsis

An open expression of feelings - both positive and negative

85

Benefits of Groups Therapy: Existential Factors

Group is able to help individual members take direction of their own loves and to accept responsibility for the quality of their experience

86

Therapeutic Milieu

- Includes all patients and treatment team
- Is meant to be a safe place to try out new behaviors, such as ADLs