Flashcards in Guest Speaker Clarissa Tuttle Deck (42):
What are two ways to identify ASD risk factors and warning signs?
- Developmental surveillance
- Case Finding
What is Developmental Surveillance?
- Collecting information
- Parent and professional observations
- Tracking developmental progress compared to peers
What are three key aspects of Case Finding?
What are you looking for?
risk factors and warning signs of atypical developmen
What are you listening for?
parental concerns about atypical development.
Who are you questioning?
caregivers about the child’s development
What are the red flag indicators?
- No big smiles or other joyful expressions by 6 months.b
- No back-and-forth sharing of sounds, smiles, or facial expressions by 9 months.b
- No babbling by 12 months of age
- No back and forth gestures (e.g. pointing, showing, reaching or waving by 12 months)a
- No words by 16 months
- No two-word meaningful phrases by 24 months
- ANY loss of speech, babbling or social skills at ANY age
- Failure to attend to human voice by 24 months.
- Failure to look at face and eyes of others by 24 months.
- Failure to orient to name by 24 months.
- Failure to demonstrate interest in other children by 24 months.
- Failure to imitate by 24 months.
What is the purpose of a screening?
to help determine the need for additional diagnostic assessments
What are three components to screening?
- Behavioral checklists
What makes up the medical testing?
- Lead screening
- Audiological evaluation
What is used for the Behavioral Screening of Infants and Preschoolers?
- Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT)
- Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
- Social Communication Questionnaire
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test
- Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire
What are the elements of education evaluation?
- Health and Developmental
- Qualitative Assessment Data
- Quantitative Assessment Data
What do you look at within the developmental and health history?
- Prenatal and perinatal risk factors
- Postnatal risk factors
- Developmental milestones
- Language? Social? Regression?
- Medical History
- Diagnostic History
- Family History
Within the Multi-Disciplinary ASD Assessment, who is included in the qualitative and quantitative assessments?
- Others: OT, APE &/or PT
What does the psychologist look at?
Cognitive, Adaptive (daily living) & Problem Behaviors, Social-Emotional/Play & ASD-Specific Measures
What does the SLP look at?
Speech, Oral Motor, Language, Social-Pragmatics & Play
What does the teacher look at?
Academic Skills & School Functioning
What does the nurse look at?
Vision, Hearing and H&D Screening
What does the physician look at?
Neurologist, Lead Screening & Lab Tests
What does the OT look at?
Fine & Visual Motor and/or Sensory Processing?
What does the APE &/or PT look at?
What does the qualitative assessment data include?
- Non-Standardized Observations
- Non-Standardized Interviews: Interviews with parent, teacher, student, etc.
- Non-Standardized Checklists: Checklists for DSM-5, Social Skills, Ed Code, etc
What are the two types of Non-Standardized observations?
- Structured: School (class, workshop, circle time), therapy, or any structured environment
- Unstructured: Recess, free-play, in the home
What makes up the quantitative assessment data?
- Indirect ASD interview/Rating Scale Measures
- Direct ASD observational measures
What are some Indirect ASD interview/Rating Scale Measures tests?
- Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (GARS2)
- Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC)
- Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS)
- Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)
What are two Direct ASD observational measures tests?
- Childhood Autism Rating Scales, 2 (CARS 2)
- Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS2)
What is the ASD eligibility determination?
- Inability to use verbal and/or nonverbal language for appropriate communication
- A history of extreme withdrawal or relating to people inappropriately and continued impairment in social interaction from infancy through early childhood
- An obsession to maintain sameness
- Extreme preoccupation with objects or inappropriate use of objects or both.
- Extreme resistance to controls
- Peculiar motoric mannerisms and motility patterns (repetitive or stereotyped)
- Self-stimulating, ritualistic behavior
Under the ASD eligibility determination criteria, what does the Inability to use verbal and/or nonverbal language for appropriate communication consist of?
- Leads adult by hand to desired object rather than ask for it
- Randomly produces vocalizations, jargon, non-sequiturs, etc.
- Does not initiate communication spontaneously
- Echolalia (either immediate or delayed mimicking of previously heard phrases, such as from videos,
- TV shows, commercials)
- Communicates affirmation (yes) by literal repetition of question
- Pronoun reversals or other odd (for age) mistakes
- Utterances seem inappropriate to the situation
- Does not ask questions and/or has difficulty answering "wh" questions
- Odd rhythm or timing (e.g., chunks words together or pauses at inappropriate times)
- Odd inflection or modulation (e.g., sing-song, flat, loud, etc.)
Under the ASD eligibility determination criteria, what does a history of extreme withdrawal or relating to people inappropriately and continued impairment in social interaction from infancy through early childhood include?
- Does not play with other children
- Does not participate in give/take interactions
- Flat facial affect
- Primarily self-directed (does things on own terms/interests not at other’s request)
- Lacks personal boundaries
- No, limited, fleeting or odd eye contact
- Appears to be deaf or in own world
- Misreads social situations or does not understand social rules
- Physically turns away from others when approached or may say, "Go away."
Under the ASD eligibility determination criteria, what does an obsession to maintain sameness
- Inflexible or rigid behaviors
- Everything must be "just so“
- Shows serious distress with changes, such as changes in environment, in routines, in location of self in familiar activities, in placement of familiar objects, in food, clothing, etc.
- Difficulties with transitions from one activity to the next
- Must control activities and/or interactions.
- Demands same rituals/routines (e.g. same book every night)
- Eats only limited variety of foods
Under the ASD eligibility determination criteria, what does an Extreme preoccupation with objects or inappropriate use of objects or both mean?
- Lines up objects, stacks items or puts into unusual patterns
- Spins repetitively objects (or parts of objects)
- Excessive focus on tiny details or movements of objects
- Plays with only one kind of toy/theme (may be an odd interest or focus in mechanical objects like fans, etc.)
- Takes everything apart or opens and closes everything
- Hordes (often unusual) objects
- Excessive unusual fears or no fear for legitimate dangers
- Over-attachment to certain objects
Under the ASD eligibility determination criteria, what are the Extreme resistance to controls
- Frequently refuses to respond, move, or participate when asked (usually tied to interruption of preferred activity or ritual, not mere opposition)
- Tantrums or cries and cannot be comforted or dissuaded
- Excessive need to control environment, interaction or activity
- Self-directed, in own world
Under the ASD eligibility determination criteria, Peculiar motoric mannerisms and motility patterns (repetitive or stereotyped) consist of?
- Flaps arms and/or hands
- Gazes at lights or flicks fingers at light sources
- Walks or runs on tiptoe
- Runs hand along peripheries
- Smells or tastes everything
- Odd finger, hand or body postures or tensing
- Unusual sensory seeking or avoiding behaviors
Under the ASD eligibility determination criteria, Self-stimulating, ritualistic behavior consist of?
- Rocks or spins self or objects
- Bangs head or objects or bites or hits self
- Goes through specific patterns over and over
- Asks same questions repeatedly
- Perseverates on certain topics
- Unusual sensory seeking (or avoiding) behaviors
When determining the educational needs and appropriate placement & services, what is Consider Continuum of Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Options for students?
- General Education (GE)?
- GE with DIS and/or other supplementary aides or support?
- Separate Classroom, School or Setting?
What are the positive behavioral supports?
Tier 1 – School wide system that fosters prosocial behavior in all students across environments
Tier 2 – Carefully developed environmental structures that support and promote desirable behavior in small groups
Tier 3 – Individualized/intensive supports to minimize problem behavior/excesses and teach/reinforce desired behavior
What are the positive behavioral supports for Tier 3?
- Individualized methods, techniques, and designed to promote pro-social behavior in a student with ASD.
- Typically, Tier 3 PBS is result of a functional behavioral assessment conducted by school psychologist or behavior specialist.
- Should address specific problem behaviors and promote positive functional outcomes
- Common Deficits:
What are the common deficits of individuals with ASD?
- Theory of Mind
- Executive Functions
- Sensory Processing
Regarding the positive behavioral supports for Tier 3 what should we know and plan for predictors of behavior?
Social Stories – Carol Gray
TIER 3: How can you reinforce appropriate behavior?
- Token boards (work/reward system),
- Social (praise, high-5’s, etc)
- Tangible (stickers, stamps, etc.)
TIER 3: What are Instructions critical to improve?