Gynea cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gynea cancer Deck (19):
1

How often are smears?

Behest

2

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) staging and follow-up

Didgfhgf

3

Which HPV risk for cervical cancer?

HPV 16 and 18

4

How frequently do people with HIV get smear tests?

1/year

5

Risk for endometrial cancer?

More oestrogen than progesterone
Pcos
Nullparity
Obesity

? Tamoxifen

6

Endometrial cancer investigations

Uss >4mm
Pipelle biopsy
Hysteroscopy

7

Signs of ovarian cancer?

Stomach pain
Bloating
Urinary
Loss of appetite


Ca-125, family hx.

8

What are the main risk factors for endometrial cancer?

Exogenous oestrogen!
Obesity
PCOS (amenorrhea)
Nulliparity
Tamoxifen

9

What cell type are the majority of cervical malignancies?

Squamous cell carcinoma

10

What's the most common type of ovarian cancer?

Serous cystadenocarcinoma (50%)



10% clear cell- poor prognosis

11

Which familial genes are associated with ovarian cancer?

Brca1 and 2. HNPCC.

12

What ovarian cancers do we see in children?

80% are germ cell tumours
Epithial tumours - teens
Sex-cord stromal tumours - <10yrs old (granulosa, theca cells)

13

What is Meigs syndrome?

Benign ovarian tumour (fibroma)
Ascites
Pleural effusion

14

What are the stages for cervical cancer?

1a- limited to cervix - microscopic
1b- macroscopic
2 - extension into uterus/parametrial/vagina
3 - extension to pelvic sidewall and or lower vagina
4 - extension beyond the true pelvis or involve the of bladder or bowel mucosa

15

What is the management for ovarian enlargement?

Ultrasound scan.
Pre menopausal - conservative if small cyst - monitor again in 8-12wks and then consider referral
Postmenopausal - refer to gyneacology

16

Post menopausal bleeding is assumed to be endometrial cancer, apart from in one case. When is it?

Only post- coital.

Suggests - polyp, vaginitis, foreign body

17

What are krukenberg ovarian tumours?

Mets from gastric tumours (histology shows signet ring cells)

18

What cells are seen in
A) granulosa cell tumours
B) brenner tumours
C) mucinous cystadenomae
D) fibromas (meigs)

A) call-exner bodies (follicles containing eosinophils)
B) transitional cells
C) endocervical cells
D) spindle shaped fibroblasts

19

What level ca125 is abnormal?

> 35u/ml