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Introduction to Healthcare Science > Haematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haematology Deck (70)
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What do mature RBCs look like?

- These are known as erythrocytes.
- They are smaller than reticulocytes.
- They are found in circulating blood.
- Flexible bi-concave discs - no nucleus/organelles, uniform in size and shape.
- 8uM in diameter.


What do mature RBCs do?

- Transfer CO2 and O2.


What is lifespan of mature RBCs?

- 120 days in circulation.
- The spleen removes RBCs, about 1% broken down each day.


How much of a RBCs is filled with haemoglobin?



What is the normal range of mature RBCs in adults?

- Male: 4.5-6.5 x 10(12)/L.
- Female: 3.9-5.6 x 10(12)/L.


What is the main function of RBCs?

- To carry O2 to tissues and return CO2 from tissues to lungs.


What is haemoglobin?

- It's a tetrameric protein.
- Contains two alpha and two beta globin chains and each has its own haem molecule.
- Each haemoglobin molecule can carry up to four oxygen molecules.


Which hormone regulates erythropoiesis and where is it produced?

- Erythropoietin and its produced in kidney.


What is the stimulant to release erythropoietin in the tissues of the kidney?

- Low oxygen tension in these tissues.


What are platelets?

- Also known as thrombocytes.
- Megakaryocytes are platelet forming cells. They produce about 1000-5000 platelets each. Platelets contain granules.
- Life span can be a few days to a lifetime.
- They are 10-15x bigger than RBCs.
- They are the largest cells in bone marrow.
- They are involved in clotting. Once in blood they last about 7-10 days. - Normal range is 150-400x10(9)/L.


What are white blood cells?

- Also known as leukocytes.
- Nucleated large cells.
- Involved in defence and immunity. In health individual 4-11x10(9)/L.
- Composed of phagocytes (granulocytes such as neutrophils) and immunocytes (lymphocytes).
- Only mature cells found in blood, immature types are found in bone marrow and lymph nodes.


What is a neutrophil?

- 60-70% of leukocyte pop.
- Polymorphous nucleus (2-5 lobes).
- Phagocytose bacteria.


What is an eosinophil?

- 0.5-3% of leukocyte pop.
- Polymorphous nucleus (2 lobes).
- Bright red granules.
- Release toxins to defend against parasites.


What is a basophil?

- Rare in blood.
- 0.01-0.3% leukocyte pop.
- Polymorphous nucleus (2 lobes) -can't see once stained.
- Involved in inflammatory reactions.
- Produce heparin to prevent clotting.
- Important in parasite infections.
- Few h - few days life span.


What is a monocyte?

- 3-8% of leukocyte pop.
- Nucleus: kidney shaped.
- Can develop into macrophages or dendritic cells.
- Respond to inflammation signals.
- Life span 1-5 days.


What are the two primary organs where lymphocytes develop?

- Bone marrow and thymus.


Where do lymphocytes develop from?

- Haeomatopoetic stem cells which produce lymphoid stem cell.


Where are B cells and NK cells produced?

- In bone marrow.


What are the roles of B cells and NK cells?

- B cells: antibody mediated immunity.
- NK cells: immunological surveillance.


What is blood?

- Multifactorial tissue. Considered a form of fluid connective tissue (due to same embryonic origin as other connective tissues i.e. Mesodermal).
- Connects body systems together (CO2, nutrients, waste disposal).


Where are T cells produced?

- Thymus.


What are lymphocytes?

- Make up 20-30% of leukocyte population.
- Round nucleus.
- Consist of b, t and NK cells.
- B: form antibodies.
- T: prepare foreign proteins for phagocytosis.
- NK: destroy infected cells and tumour cells.
- Life span few days - life time.


What can blood be used to detect?

- Used to detect haematology diseases.
- Haematological changes in other diseases.
- Monitor side effects of treatment e.g. Chemo, anti inflammatory and psychotic drug treatments.


If you have a high or low leukocyte count what can this mean?

- High: infection, inflammation, leukaemia.
- Low: medications, severe infection, autoimmune disease, BM failure.


What is average white cell count in normal indiv



Why would red cell count be increased or decreased?

- Increased: maybe because dehydration.
- Decreased: someone with anaemia.


What does full blood count include?

- WCC.
- RBC count.
- Hb count.
- Platelet count.


Normal ranges for Hb ?

- Male: 13.5-17.5g/dl.
- Female: 11.5-15.5g/dl.

- Decrease indicates anaemia.


What is normal platelet count

- 150-400x10(9).

- Increase could be because myeloproliferative disorder affecting bone marrow, inflammation or infection.
- Decrease could be thrombocytopenia or leukaemia.


Which blood components can be transfused?

- RBCs - anaemic patients/bleeding patients.
- fresh frozen plasma - replace clotting factor.
- platelets - patients with low/dysfunctional platelets to prevent haemorrhage.
- white cells - rare. Usually given growth factor to stimulate production of own.