Haemotology 3 - WBCs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Haemotology 3 - WBCs Deck (33)
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1
Q

what is the most abundant WBC?

A

Neutrophils (50-70% of WBCs)

2
Q

general term for WBCs

A

leukocytes

3
Q

name the 5 types of leukocytes

A

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

4
Q

least abundant leukocyte?

A

Basophils

5
Q

what is the common cell that forms 4 of the leukocytes

A

common myeloid progenitor (which then forms the myeloblast, then basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes)

6
Q

name the common cell that produces lymphocytes

A

common lymphoid progenitor

7
Q

main defining feature of leukocytes

A

has a nucleus

8
Q

key general roles of WBCs

A

defend against pathogens
toxin and waste removal
remove damged cells (e.g. RBCs)

9
Q

common features of all leukocytes: extravasation

A

can squeeze between endothelial cells to enter surrounding tissue
basically, can migrate out of bloodstream

via process called DIAPEDESIS

10
Q

common features of all leukocytes: amoeboid movement

A

develops projections using the cytoplasm to form pseudopodia

psuedopodia are like little legs
use it to move through endothelial lining out of bloodstream into tissues
so it assists extravasation

not only in wbcs, but in others as well

11
Q

common features of all leukocytes: chemical stimuli

A

all respond to different chemical stimuli
can also give off chemical stimuli to attract other cells

POSITIVE CHEMOTAXIS

12
Q

common features of all leukocytes: phagocytosis

A

only neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes can do it

13
Q

what is the normal WBC count range

A

4-11 x 10^9 /litre blood

no. in blood often an indicator of disease

14
Q

which of the 5 are granulocytes

A

neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils

15
Q

which of the 5 are agranulocytes

A

lymphocytes
monocytes

16
Q

what is the ratio of RBC:Platelets:WBCs ?

A

700:40:1

17
Q

NEUTROPHILS: structure

A

make up 50-70% of WBCs

9-15micrometers in diameter

distinctive nucleus 2-5 lobes (more lobes = more mature), granular cytoplasm

18
Q

NEUTROPHILS: function

A

first line of defence against BACTERIAL infection

phagocytic

mobile, can move from circ system into tissues
this means
they only circulate in blood for ~10hrs before they either migrate into tissue or are broken down

major constituent of pus - made up of WBCs that were invloved in fighting the infection

19
Q

what might be the reason for less than 2 lobes in a neutrophil OR more than 5?

A

more than 5 = abnormal

less than 2 = immature, been released to early
can happen when body overwhelmed by infection
or in malignancy

20
Q

EOSINOPHILS: structure

A

2-4% of WBCs

10-12micrometers
bilobed nucleus - sunglasses
stains red

21
Q

EOSINOPHILS: function

A

release toxic compunds (e.g. NO and cytotoxic enzymes)
combat parasitic infection
can also help other cells out by attacking bacteria etc.

involved in allergies&asthma - often have increased eosinophil count

circulate in blood approx 8-12 hrs before they migrate to tissue or destroyed
short lifespan - 1-3 days

22
Q

what might an irregular shape of an eosinophil indicate

A

theyr’re reacting to some kind of pathogen
may have eosinophilia (too many)

23
Q

BASOPHILS: structure

A

> 1% of WBC - only time you’ll see more is in large inflammatory response or in some haemtological malignancy

8-10micrometers
bilobed ‘S’ shaped nucleus
but hard to see cuz large granules

can look similar to lymphocytes

granules = histamine, heparin

24
Q

BASOPHILS: function

A

inflammatory response
lifespan is unknown

may be precursors to mast cells

25
Q

MONOCYTE : structure

A

2-10%

fucking huge
up to 20micrometers
large kidney shaped nucleus (got indentation in nucleus)
extensive cytoplasm

26
Q

MONOCYTE: function

A

little function in blood - mainly in tissues
(usually in spleen- help digest RBCs)
migrate out of circulation after 3-4 days

tissue macrophages live for months-years
phagocytic

27
Q

LYMPHOCYTE: structure

A

20-30%

smalles WBC
6-15micrometers - depends on type of lymphocyte

lifespan = weeks to several years

large nucleus compared to cytoplasm

28
Q

LYMPHOCYTE: function

A

central role in immunological defense

circulate between various lymphoid tissues and other tissues via blood and lympahtic vessels

29
Q

Types of lymphocytes

A

T cells
B cells
Natural killer cells

30
Q

T cells function

A

cell-mediated immunity

e.g. invloved in transplant rejection

31
Q

B cells function

A

differentiate further into plasma cells

secrete antibodies (humoral immunity)

32
Q

Natural killer cells - function

A

immune surveillance

inmportant in preventing cancer

33
Q

if someone has viral infection, which WBC count is raised

A

lymphocyte