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what does the T mean in the TNM naming system?

describes the size of the tumour, and how far is has spread into nearby tissue


what does the N mean in the TNM naming system?

describes if there is any cancer cells in the lymph nodes


what does the M mean in the TNM naming system?

describes if the cancer has spread to another part of the body


what are the biomedical cancer risk factors?

genetic susceptibility and hormonal factors in females


what are the lifestyle risk factors for cancer?

smoking, alcohol, obesity, physical inactivity, chronic infections and poor diet


what are the environmental risk factors of cancer?

sunlight, radiation, occupational exposure, pollution


what is stage 0 cancer?

very small and benign


what is stage 1?

small and contained within the organ of origin


what is stage 2?

tumour larger than stage 1, but not spread into surrounding tissues, may have spread into closely lymph nodes depending on cancer


what is stage 3?

cancer is larger, may have spread into surrounding tissues and there are cancer cells in lymph nodes nearby


what is stage 4?

means the cancer has spread from where it originated, such as the liver or lung, is also called secondary/metastatic cancer


in what 2 ways is cancer classified?

by the type of tissue in which it originated and the location where it developed


what is carcinoma?

malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin in internal or external lining of the body


what is adenocarcinoma?

a carcinoma that developed in an organ or gland


what is squamous cell carcinoma?

develops in a squamous cell


what is sarcoma?

cancer that originates in supportive and connective tissue such as bones, tendons, cartilage muscle and fat


what are the features of sarcoma?

generally occur in young adults and resemble the tissue in which they grow


what is myeloma?

originates in the plasma cells of the bone marrow


what is leukaemia?

cancers of the bone marrow


why is a person with leukaemia prone to infection?

overproduction of white blood cells that do not perform as they should so cannot fight infection


what is lymphoma?

cancer that develops in glands or nodes of lymphatic system, blood vessels and organs that purify bodily fluids


what is lymphoma classified as?

hodgkin or non-hodgkin


what are the hallmarks of cancer?

sustaining proliferative signalling, evading growth suppressors, activating invasion and metastasis, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis and resisting cell death


what is growth signal autonomy?

normal cells need external signals in order to divide, cancer cells circumvent this leading to uncontrolled growth, and can also create their own growth factors


how can cancer cells cause hyper responsiveness to growth signals?

they have the ability to synthesise and secrete their own growth factors and can have mutations in the GF receptors that increase the amount present on cell surface


how can cancer cell GF receptors be permanently switched on?

the receptor can become structurally altered causing a lack of regulatory regions


what is Ras?

a key signalling pathway protein


what is an oncogene?

genes that promote automomous growth in cancer cells


how do oncogenes cause unregulated growth?

they produce oncoprotein which do not have important regulatory elements and their production in the transformed cells does not depend on growth factors or other external signals


why is retinoblastoma classified as a tumour suppressor protein?

because at the molecular level, all antigrowth signals are fuelled through the retinoblastoma protein