Flashcards in Head and Neck (MAINLY CRANIUM) p.30 Rohen Deck (19)
Name the extra-ocular muscles (7) with innervation and main action(s).
1.) Superior oblique: CN IV (trochlear). Responsible for ABduction, depression, and medial rotation (INTORSION).
2.) Inferior oblique: CN III (oculomotor). Responsible for ABduction, elevation, and lateral rotation (EXTORSION).
3.) Levator palpebrae superioris: CN III (oculomotor). Elevates superior eyelid.
4.) Superior rectus: CN III. Elevates, adducts, and medially rotates eyeball (INTORSION).
5.) Inferior rectus: CN III. Depresses, adducts, and laterally rotates eyeball (EXTORSION).
6.) Medial rectus: CN III. ADduction of eyeball.
7.) Lateral rectus: CN VI (abducent). ABducts eyeball.
What are the layers of the deep cervical fascia (5)?
3.) Visceral --> a.) Pretracheal (anteriorly) b.) Retrovisceral (posteriorly)
What muscles, glands, and anatomical spaces does the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia enclose?
1.) Muscles: Sternocleidomastoid (anteriorly and posteriorly), trapezius (anteriorly and posteriorly).
2.) Glands: Submandibular gland, parotid gland.
3.) Spaces: Posterior and anterior triangle.
Where does the investing layer split into two? What space does it create at that point? What does it enclose after that point?
It splits just above the sternum around the ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR surfaces of the manubrium forming the SUPRASTERNAL SPACE. It contains/encloses the anterior jugular veins.
What structure(s) lie within the optic canal (2) and where is this foramina/aperture located (e.g. frontal, parietal, ethmoid, etc.)?
Optic nerves (CN II) and ophthalmic arteries...Sphenoid
What structure(s) pass through the superior orbital fissure (6)?
Ophthalmic veins, ophthalmic nerve (CN V1), CN III, IV, and VI, and sympathetic fibers...Sphenoid
What structure(s) pass through the foramen rotundum?
Maxillary nerve CN V2...Sphenoid
What structure(s) pass through the foramen ovale?
Mandibular nerve CN V3 and accessory meningeal artery...Sphenoid
What structure(s) pass through the foramen spinosum
Middle meningeal artery and vein and meningeal branch of CN V3...Sphenoid, forms crescent of four foramina
What structure(s) pass through the foramen lacerum?
Deep petrosal nerve and some meningeal arterial branches and small veins..found at junction of sphenoid, temporal, and occipital.
What structure(s) pass through the groove/hiatus of greater petrosal nerve?
Greater petrosal nerve and petrosal branch of middle meningeal artery...temporal
What structure(s) pass through the foramen magnum (6)?
Medulla and meninges, vertebral arteries, CN XI, dural veins, anterior and posterior spinal arteries...occipital
What structure(s) pass through the jugular foramen (8)?
CN IX, X, XI; superior bulb of internal jugular vein, inferior petrosal and sigmoid sinuses, and meningeal branches of ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries...parietal
What structure(s) pass through the hypoglossal canal?
Hypoglossal nerve CN XII...occipital
What structure(s) pass through the condylar canal
Emissary vein that passes from sigmoid sinus to vertebral veins in neck...occipital
What structure(s) pass through the mastoid foramen (2)?
Mastoid emissary vein from sigmoid sinus and meningeal branch of occipital artery...temporal
What structure(s) pass through the stylomastoid foramen?
Facial nerve and stylomastoid artery.
1.) What structure(s) pass through the cavernous sinuses (lateral wall superior to inferior, and middle)?
2.) Trace the path of drainage from the cavernous sinus
1.) Lateral wall: CN III, IV, V1, V2. Middle: Internal carotid artery, CN VI.
2.) Cavernous sinus --> Superior and inferior petrosal sinuses --> Jugular vein via sigmoid sinus. Also drains emissary vein to pterygoid plexus.