Head Trauma Flashcards Preview

ITLS > Head Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head Trauma Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

Coup

Injury to brain in area of original impact.

2

Contracoup

Injury to brain on opposite side of original impact.

3

1' brain injury

Immediate damage to brain tissue due to an injury force.

4

2' brain injury

Injury resulting from hypoxia or decreased perfusion of brain tissue after 1' brain injury

5

ICP

Pressure of brain and contents within skull.

6

Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)

= MAP - ICP

7

Mean arterial pressure

= dBP + ⅓(sBP - dBP)

8

Cushing's refex

Reflex whereby the body reacts to increased intracerebral pressure by raising the BP.

9

Cerebral herniation syndrome

Critical syndrome in which swelling of the brain forces portions of the brain tissue down through the opening at the base of the skull squeezing the brain stem and causing coma, dilatation of pupils, contralateral paralysis or decerebrate posturing (arms and legs extended), elevated BP, bradycardia. Outward downward deviation of eye.

10

Clinical signs of cerebral herniation:

TBI with GCS

11

Brain injuries:

1. Intracranial hemorrhage:
- acute epidural hematoma
- acute subdural hematoma
- intracerebral hemorrhage
2. Anoxic brain injury
3. Diffuse axonal injury
4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
5. Cerebral contusion
6. Concussion

12

Concussion:

No structural injury to brain that can be demonstrated by current imaging techniques. Sometimes loss of consciousness. Retrograde short-term amnesia. Dizziness, headache, ringing in ears, and/or nausea.

13

Cerebral contusion:

Prolonging unconsciousness or serious alteration in LOC (profound confusion, persistent amnesia, abnormal behavior). May have rapid and severe brain swelling. Focal neurological signs.

14

Subarachnoid hemorrhage:

Blood in subarachnoid space. This causes irritation resulting in intravascular fluid leaking into brain causing more edema. Severe headache, coma, vomiting from irritation are common. May result in cerebral herniation.

15

Diffuse axonal injury:

Most common as result of severe blunt head trauma.
Diffuse injury causing generalized edema.
Unconscious with no focal motor deficits.

16

Anoxic brain injury:

Lack of oxygen to brain affect brain in serious fashion. Anoxic episode perfusion to cortex interrupted because of spasm that develops in small cerebral arteries. After 4 - 6min of anoxia restoring oxygenation and BP will not restore perfusion of cortex (no-reflow phenomenon), and there will be continuing anoxic injury to brain cells.

17

Acute epidural hematoma

Tear in middle meningeal artery running along inside of skull in temporal region.

Sx:
- hx of head trauma with LOC followed by lucid interval.
- sx of increasing ICP (vomiting, headache, altered mental status).
- lapse into unconsciousness.
- paralysis on opposite side.
- fixed and dilated pupil on injured side.

18

Acute subdural hematoma

Bleeding between arachnoid and dura.

Sx:
- headache.
- fluctuations in LOC
- focal neurological sx.

19

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Blunt/penetrating injuries