Health Beliefs and Behaviours Flashcards
Why do we use theories?
To pull together learning from prior research (organize ideas) and prevent from “inventing the wheel” (keeps science moving forwards” and finally to allow for the testing and refuting of ideas within a scientific dialogue.
What are the guiding principles for applying theory to medication use?
(1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for all medication use research.
(2) Behavioural science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic
(3) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use
(4) Every patient is unique
(5) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of the long term behaviour is the goal.
(6) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several causal pathways: exchanging information, validating and responding to patient’s emotional needs, managing uncertainty etc.
What is the Sick Role Theory?
It is a theory that defined the behaviours expected of a person defined as sick. It was created because it tells us what we should expect from each other.
What are the rights and duties of the person taking part in the Sick Role?
Rights: freedom from blame for illness and exemption from normal roles and tasks
Duties: intend to get well and cooperate with HCPs
What are the problems with the Sick Role?
(1) The sick role is not necessarily temporary (Chronic Disease is now a problem and people may not follow the rights and duties in this care)
(2) The sick role is not always voluntary (the HCP has to decide if we are sick or not)
(3) Variability in Sick Role legitimacy - some people lead a life style which results in illness
(4) Responsible for illness (is the person responsible for the illness?)
What is Social Cognitive Theory?
This theory explores what it is like to be the person who tries to understand what to do in life’s many encounters. It views personality in terms of how the PERSON thinks about the SITUATIONS encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them!
What are the four sources of self-efficacy proposed by Social-Cognitive Theory?
(1) Physiological and affective states: how you feel, what is happening in your life at the moment.
(2) Vicarious Experiences: learn by watching people
(3) Social Persuasion: encouragement or pressures
(4) Mastery Experiences: process of learning in safe to real environments.
What is self-efficacy?
It is defined as people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce a designated level of performance that exercises influence over the event that affect their lives. It is specific to a behaviour and involves evaluation of person’s skills as well as their confidence in a skill!
What is mastery learning?
A skill will be modelled to convey the basic rules and strategies. Learners will first practice the skill in a controlled environment and receive feedback. They will then apply the skill in work situations that are expected to bring success. Then you need to see someone do it and practice in a safe place before going out into the real world.
What is Social Support?
It is the theory and fact that networking helps people cope with stressful events. It is the fact that social relationships have a great impact on health education and health behaviour.
What are the 4 types of social support?
Emotional Support: sharing life experiences
Instrumental Support: tangible aid
Informational Support: advice, suggestions and informations
Appraisal Supports: information useful for self-evaluation purposes.
What is coping and stress theory?
This is a theory that explains how some people are better able to handle stressful events better then others, due to how they cope with stress.
What is primary appraisal?
This is how a person first assess a situation - how bad is it?
What is secondary appraisal?
This is a person determining if they can handle a stressful situation.
Which people tend to handle stressful situations better?
Wealthy people, because they have more resources.
What are coping efforts?
They are actual strategies used to mediate primary and secondary appraisals.
What are the two types of coping efforts?
Emotional Regulation: strategies aimed at changing how one thinks or feels about a stressful situation.
Problem Regulation: strategies aimed at changing a stressful situation.
What is dispositional coping?
These are generalized ways of behaving that can affect a person’s emotional or functional reaction.
What are the two types of dispositional coping?
Optimism: the tendency to have generalized positive expectancies for outcomes.
Information Seeking: attentional styles that are vigilant (monitoring) versus those that involve avoidance (blunting)
What is the trans-theoretical model?
This is the Stages of Change Theory. It states that a person is in one of 5 stages of readiness to change their behaviour.
What are some basic things you must remember when applying the trans-theoretical model to people?
In the first 3 stages, people are weighing the pros and cons.
Do not assume people are ready to change.
People move or cycle through the stages of change.
Pushing to hard may result in resistance.
What are the 5 stages in the trans-theoretical model?
Pre-Contemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance
What is the pre-contemplation stage?
The cons outweigh the pros and the person in this stage will not be considering change for a while.
What is the contemplation stage?
The person has lower self efficacy, and are thinking about changing in about 6 months. They are open to information.