What is Positive Psychology?
Seeking to understand and amplify strength, resilience, happiness and wellbeing
It isn't just about making people smile!
What is Learned Helplessness?
The theory that if you feel that you can't stop things from happening, hen you simply give up trying!
They took dogs and had one side of the room (with an electrical floor) seperated by a jump
Dogs that learnt to jump when shocked did this naturally, however dogs that didn't figure this out just accepted it and sat there
This is reversible!! --> By pushing the dogs over the ramp and showing them that it isn't hopeless, they started jumping over themselves
What can prevent learned helplessness?
Those with early experience with personal mastery
Those who were resilient in situations likely to cause helplessness
What are the following.....?
Self Efficacy --> Belief in our own capability
High levels mean that people see themselves succeeding, and so are more likely to put more time into mastering something
Subjective Wellbeing --> How people evaluate their lives
This can be overall (global) or day-to-day
What is the 3 Good Things Intervention?
Note down 3 good things each day and why they were good
These can be small/unimportant things, or big/important things
After a follow it was found that just by doing this people became happier and less depressed!!
What are the 3 different types of Social Support?
Instrumental --> Practical support to reduce stress (eg, lifts to appointments)
Emotional --> Support to help manage emotional responses (eg, someone to talk to)
Informational --> Providing information/knowledge that can be used to overcome stress (eg, medical information)
What is Stigma?
An extreme example of a lack of social support
Defined as the coexistence of labelling, stereotyping, seperation, status loss and discrimination in a context in which power is exercised. You become excluded from society
When do we perceive something to be stressful?
When the perceived threat is greater than the perceived ability to cope
Social support can reduce the perceived threat.....as you feel more able to cope
What are the 2 hypothesis around when social support is useful in terms of stress?
Direct Effects/Main Effect Hypothesis --> Social support is always beneficial to health and wellbeing irrespective of whether someone is stressed or not
This is due to the sense of belonging and the psychological impact that that has
Buffer Effects Hypothesis --> Social support is only beneficial at times of stress
States that PERCIEVED social support acts as a buffer against the adverse effects of stressful events