Flashcards in Heart and mediastinum Deck (20):
What are the vessels seen on the pericardial sac supplying?
The fibrous pericardium and the parietal layer of the serous pericardium
The (blank) reflects onto the ascending aorta and the SVC.
As the heart grows into the serous pericardium to form a pericardial sac it invaginates the sac creating two layers. What are they? Which layer forms the outer layer of the heart (epicardium)? Which layer fuses with the serofibrous connective tissue of the fibrous pericardial sac. Both parietal and visceral layers are (blank) (basically one cell layer thick). The fibrous pericardium is relatively (blank) except over long periods of time.
Parietal and visceral layer
Left Vagus nerve courses past the aortic arch and heads posteriorly to reach the esophageal plexus giving off the (blank) on the way.
left recurrent branch
The transverse sinus is located (blank) to the outflow and (blank) to the inflow. It is clinically significant because it is an easy way to identify the aorta and pulmonary trunk in heart surgery
The oblique sinus is formed by the reflections of the (blank) over the pulmonary veins and sup. and inf. vena cava
The base of the heart is primarily which atrium?
A right dominant heart has the PD descending from where? How about a left dominant heart?
Right coronary artery; circumflex artery
The great, middle, and small cardiac veins drain into the (blank).
Discuss these structures in the right atrium:
Muscular and smooth walls
Fossa ovalis is the remnant of the primitive foramen ovale
The muscular portion of the atrium is called the pectinate muscles
Auricle can pump extra blood, like a reserve
The crista terminalis separates the rough from the smooth wall
Discuss right ventricle:
Smooth and rough parts of the wall
Chordae tendineae; cusps of the tricuspid valve
Smooth part = conus arteriosus
Rough part = trabeculae carneae
3 papillary muscles: anterior, posterior, and septal
Moderator band: connects the septum to the anterior papillary muscle
In the left ventricle, how many cusps are there?
The left atrium is mostly smooth. Why?
Receives the pulmonary veins
What keeps the aortic and pulmonic valves from allowing back flow?
The cusps close in a semilunar fashion
What prevents the mitral and tricuspid valves from prolapsing?
The papillary muscles pulling on the chordae tendonae.
All four valves of the heart are located within this structure
Are nerves going to the cardiopulmonary plexus pre or postganglionic?
Postganglionic, because they are above the diaphragm
Where do efferents to the heart come from? How do afferents return to CNS?
The vagus, the T1-4 chain ganglia, and the cervical chain ganglia.
Afferents return on the vagus for relfexes and via the sympathetics where they transmit painful stimuli and refer to surface locations on the body.
Where are the four valves located? A; P; T; M
A: Body of sternum at 3rd intercostal space
P: Body of sternum at 3rd intercostal cartilage
T: Body of sternum at level of 4th intercostal space
M: Left side of sternum at 4th intercostal cartilage