Heart and mediastinum Flashcards Preview

anatomy II > Heart and mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart and mediastinum Deck (110):
1

The sternal angle is between T___ and T___

T4 and T5

2

What is the superior boundary of the mediastinum

Thoracic inlet

3

What is the inferior boundary of the mediastinum

Diaphragm

4

What is the anterior boundary of the mediastinum

Sternum and costal cartilages

5

What is the posterior boundary of the mediastinum

Thoracic vertebrae

6

What is the lateral boundary of the mediastinum

Pleura

7

What are the cavities in the thoracic cavity

- mediastinum
- pleural cavity
- Pericardial cavity

8

What are the cavities that make up the abdominopelvic cavity

- Abdominal cavity
- Pelvic cavity

9

Contents o the superior mediastinum

Great vessels of the heart, thoracic ducts (left), parts of azygos system, Right and left vagus nerves (recurrent laryngeal nerves), pulmonary, esophageal and cardiac autonomic nerve plexuses, thymus, parts of trachea and esophagus

10

Contents of infero-anterior mediastinum

Fat, lymph tissue, vessels, in small children thymus may extend into this region

11

Contents of infero-middle mediastinum

The heart and it's pericardial tissues

12

Contents of infero-posterior mediastinum

Thoracic aorta, esophagus, pulmonary arteries and veins, azygos system, thoracic duct, sympathetic trunk and thoracic splanchnic nerves

13

The thoracic splanchnic nerves are in the _____ portion of the mediastinum. They are bilateral and emerge from the ____-

Inferoposterior, emerge from thoracic sympathetic trunks

14

All three of the thoracic splanchnic nerves (Greater, Lesser, Least) are part of the abdomnopelvic splanchnic nerves and provide _______ to ______

Sympathetic innervation to viscera inferior to the diaphragm

15

The thoracic splanchnic nerves are all presynaptic that will synapse with _________ in abdomen

Prevertebral ganglia in abdomen

16

What are the areas of constriction where swallowed foreign objects are most likely to lodge and where a stricture may develop

At the arch of the aorta, left main bronchus, and diaphragm (note that this is the Esophageal hiatus, which is where the diaphragm has an opening for esophagus to pass through)

17

___ is the center of the cardiovascular system

Heart

18

____ carry blood away from the heart

arteries

19

_____ carry blood back to the heart

veins

20

Arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart are called the

great vessels

21

The heart ensures the _____ flow of blood through both the heart and the blood vessels

unidirectional

22

back flow of blood in the heart is prevented by ____ in the heart

valves

23

The heart acts like ____ independent, side- by-side pumps that work independently but at the same rate. What are they

- 2
- one directs blood to the lungs for gas exchange (pulmonary circulation)
- One that directs blood to body tissues for nutrient delivery (systemic circulation)

24

The heart develops ____ through alternate cycles of heart wall contraction and relaxation

- blood pressure

25

____ is essential to push blood through blood vessels to the body tissues for nutrient and waste exchange

Minimum blood pressure

26

_______ consists of the chambers on the right side of the heart (right atrium and ventricle) as well as the pulmonary arteries and veins

Pulmonary circuit

27

_____ consists of the chambers on the left side of the heart (left atrium and ventricle), along with all the other named blood vessels

Systemic circuit

28

Oxygenated blood form the left side of the heart is pumped into the _____, the larges systemic artery in the body, and then into smaller systemic arteries

aorta

29

Gas exchange in tissues occurs from ____

capillaries

30

Most veins merge and drain into the __________, which drain blood into the right atrium

superior and inferior venae cavae

31

The heart weighs about ____ to ___ grams

250 to 350

32

The heart is located ____ of the body midline posterior to the sternum in the ____ mediastinum

left, middle

33

The heart is rotated such that its ____ side or border (_________) is located more anteriorly, while its ______ side or border (_______) is located more posteriorly

- Right side or border (right atrium and ventricle)
- Left side or border (left atrium and ventricle)

34

The posterosuperior surface of the heart, formed primarily by the _____, is called the base

left atrium

35

The inferior, conical end of the heart is called the ____

apex

36

The apex projects slightly _____ toward the ______

anterioinferiorly toward the left side of the body

37

The _____ that enter the left atrium border this base

pulmonary veins

38

The pericardium has how many layers and what are they

- 3 (visceral, parietal, fibrous)

39

The heart is contained in a ____, ____ sac held in place within the mediastinum by connective tissue that supports the great vessels' external walls superior to the heart and diaphragm inferior to it

fibrous, serous

40

The pericardium functions

restricts heart movements so that it doesn't bounce and move about in the thoracic cavity, and prevents the heart form overfilling with blood

41

The outer portion of the pericardium is a tough, dense connective tissue layer called the _____

fibrous pericardium

42

The fibrous pericardium is attached to both the ___ and ____

sternum and diaphragm

43

The inner portion of the pericardium is a thin, double-layered serous membrane called the

serous pericardium

44

The serous pericardium is made up of what two parts

- Parietal layer
- Visceral layer

45

The parietal pericardium is adhered to the ______. The only potential space with fluid is between the ___ and ____

- Fibrous pericardium
- visceral layer and parietal layer

46

The heart wall consists of ___ distinctive layers. Which are called?

-3
- External epicardium
- Middle myocardium
- internal endocardium

47

The ____ is the outermost heart layer and is also known as the visceral layer of serous pericardium

Epicardium

48

As we age, more fat is deposited in the _______,and so this layer of the heart becomes thicker and more fatty

epicardium

49

____ is the middle layer of the heart wall and is composed chiefly of cardiac muscle tissue

myocardium

50

The ____ is the thickest of the three heart wall layers

myocardium

51

The internal surface of the heart and external surfaces of the heart valves are covered by a thin endothelium called the _____

endocardium

52

Between the endocardium and myocardium lies a _____ layer, which is composed of areolar connective tissue

subendocardial layer

53

___ are thin-walled chambers that are located superiorly

atria

54

the anterior part of each atrium is wrinkled, flaplike extension called an

auricle

55

____ receive blood returning to the heart through both circulatory circuits

Atria

56

____ receives blood from the systemic circuit

right atrium

57

____ receives blood from the pulmonary circuit

Left atrium

58

Two large arteries, the ____ and the ___ exit the heart at the basal surface

pulmonary trunk and aorta

59

The _____ carries blood from the right ventricle into the pulmonary circuit

Pulmonary trunk

60

The ___ conducts blood from the left ventricle into the systemic circuit

aorta

61

The atria are separated from the ventricles externally by a relatively deep ______ (or _______) that extends around the circumference of the heart

Coronary sulcus (atrioventricular sulcus)

62

On both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the heart, the _________ and the ______ are located between the left and right ventricles

Anterior interventricular sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus

63

Anterior interventricular sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus extend inferiorly from the ______ toward the heart apex

coronary sulcus

64

what is in the posterior interventricular sulcus

- posterior interventricular artery
- middle cardiac vein

65

The _____ heart skeleton is located between the atria and the ventricles, and is formed from dense irregular connective tissue

Fibrous

66

Functions of fibrous skeleton of the heart

- Separates the atria and ventricles
- Anchors heart valves by forming supportive rings at their attachment points
- provides electrical insulation between atria and ventricles
- insulation ensures that muscle impulses are not spread randomly throughout the heart, and thus prevents all the heart chambers from beating at the same time
- provides a rigid framework for the attachment of cardiac muscle tissue

67

In the adult heart, the fossa ovalis can be view in the

right atrium

68

The _____ receives blood from the systemic circuit and the heart muscle itself

right atrium

69

What 3 major vessels empty into the right atrium

- superior vena cava
- Inferior vena cava
- Coronary sinus

70

______ drains blood from the head, upper limbs, and superior regions of the trunk

Superior vena cava

71

______ drains blood from the lower limbs and trunk

inferior vena cava

72

_______ drains blood from the heart wall

Coronary sinus

73

The _____ forms a wall between the right and left atria

interatrial septum

74

The right atrium of an adult has has the fossa ovalis which is remnant of what fetal structure

foramen ovale

75

The right atrium has ____ muscle

pectinate

76

Semilunar valves function similarly to the

venous valves

77

The right atrioventricular (AV) or Tricuspid valve separates

the right atrium from the right ventricle

78

The right atrioventricular (AV) is also called the

tricuspid valve

79

The right atrioventricular (AV) valve has _____ triangular flaps

3

80

The right atrioventricular valve is forced closed when

the right ventricle begins to contract, thus preventing blood back flow into the right atrium

81

An ______ forms a wall between the right and left ventricles

Interventricular septum

82

The internal wall surface of the right ventricle has 3 cone-shaped muscular projections called _______, which anchor ____

papillary muscles, which anchor chord tendineae

83

functions of chord tendineae

attache to the cusp of the AV valves and prevent everting and flipping into the atrium when contracting

84

At its superior end the right ventricle it narrows into a smooth-walled, conical region called the _____

conus arteriosus

85

The _____ marks the end of the right ventricle and the entrance into the pulmonary trunk

pulmonary semilunar valve

86

Pulmonary trunk divides into ____ and ____

right and left pulmonary arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs

87

located within the walls of both ventricles immediately before the connection of the ventricle to the pulmonary trunk and aorta

Semilunar valves

88

Each semilunar valve is composed of

three thin, rocketlike semilunar cusps

89

Smooth posterior wall of the _______ contains openings for approximately four pulmonary veins

left atrium

90

The left atrium has some ____ muscles along its anterior wall as well as an _____

pectinate, auricle

91

The left atrioventricular (AV) valve is also called the

bicuspid or mitral valve

92

what is the largest of the four chambers of the heart

the left ventricle

93

The left ventricle is typically _____ times thicker than the right ventricular wall

3 times thicker

94

Trabeculae carneae in the ____ ventricle are more prominent

left

95

in the left ventricle ___ large papillary muscles attache to the chordae tendineae that help support the left AV valve

2 (note that this is different than the right which has 3 but this makes sense because the right AV valve is a tricuspid and the left AV Valve is bicuspid)

96

At the superior end of the ventricular cavity, the _______ marks the end of the left ventricle and the entrance into the aorta

aortic semilunar valve

97

The heart is innervated by the

autonomic nervous system

98

Innervation of the heart consists of both _____ and ___ components. Referred to as the ____ or _____

Sympathetic and parasympathetic (cardiac or coronary plexus)

99

_____ innervation increases the rate and the force of heart contractions

Sympathetic innervation

100

______ innervation decreases heart rate, but tends to have no effect on force of contractions, expect in special circumstances

parasympathetic

101

left and right coronary arteries travel in the ______ of the heart to supply the heart wall (note these are the only branches of the ascending aorta)

Coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove)

102

the openings for the left and right coronary arteries are located immediately _____ to the aortic semilunar valve

superior

103

The right coronary artery typically branches into the

- marginal artery (supplies the right border of the heart)
- Posterior interventricular artery (supplies both the left and right ventricles)

104

The marginal artery supplies

the right border of the heart

105

The posterior interventricular artery supplies

both the left and right ventricles

106

The left coronary artery typically branches into

- Anterior interventricular artery (also called the left anterior descending artery (LAD)
- Circumflex artery

107

The anterior interventricular artery ( or LAD) supplies

the anterior surface of both ventricles and most of the interventricular septum

108

The circumflex artery supplies

the left atrium and ventricle

109

Cardiomyopathy

- a condition in which a ventricle has become enlarged thickened and/or stiffened. As a result, the heart's ability to pump is reduced. Two types of cardiomyopathy include: Dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

110

_____ is a procedure in which a catheter is inserted with a tiny balloon that presses the plaque blockage against the artery so that blood may flow more freely through the vessel. A ___ is then inserted to keep the vessel pathway open and the blood flowing

Angioplasty, stent