Heart failure Tx/Drugs (pt 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Heart failure Tx/Drugs (pt 2) Deck (54):

Direct effects of Digoxin

a. Positive inotropic effect
– Due to a direct effect to increase the contractile state of the myocardium
– Increases stroke volume
b. Increases vagal tone
– Slows heart rate


Do we see a change in AP when we give pt Digoxin?

NO change in AP but we do see increased Ca+ thus increasd force of contraction


Secondary affects of Digoxin

Decreased heart rate
- Arterial and venous dilation
- Decreased venous pressure
- Normalized arterial baroreceptors


Molecular site of action of Digoxin

• Positive inotropic effect due to inhibition of the Na+,K+ ATPase
– results in increased intracellular [Na+] -- decreasing driving force for Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+exchanger
– indirectly results in increased intracellular concentration of Ca2+


WHy do we worry about hypokalemia in pts that take Digoxin?

• K+ competes for binding of digoxin to the Na+,K+-ATPase thus end up with low K+ levels


What electrophysiological actions does Digoxin have?

Electrophysiological actions:
• At therapeutic concentrations, mainly related to increased vagal nerve activity
– Reduced firing rate of SA node
– Decreased conduction velocity in AV node
– Heart block can develop


Main effect of Digoxin on ECG?

increased PR interval


Key pharmK of Digoxin
absorption and excreation?
when do we see best benefits for contractility vs neurohormonal

1/2 = 36 hrs
oral absorption with renal excreation
best cnx benefits at 1.4ng/ml and best neurohormonal at 0.8 ng/ml


What are the adverse effects/toxicity related to Digoxin

Low therapeutic index (~2)!!!!!
Affects all excitable tissues
a. GI tract (most common)- anorexia,, vomiting, diarrhea
b. Visual disturbances- Blurred vision, photophobia, color disturbances
c. Neurologic- disorientation, hallucinations
d. Muscular- muscle weakness, fatigue
e. Cardiac – arrhythmias (any type)


Toxicity with Digoxin is enhanced when pt is

hypokalemic.. may be related to diuretic use


What effect does Digoxin have on CHF progression?

debated.. some say helps, others say you only see benefit vs placebo when taking pts off because they were on a medince for long period of time, much like you would have withdrawl from other drugs


What effect does Digoxin have on overall mortality in CHF pts?

NONE!!! we see no overall benefit, also this drug has narrow tx window so it's difficult to monitor.
Better to use in pts with atrial fib or if pts have severe heart fail and this helps reduce symptoms


clincial Uses of Digoxin

Use limited to heart failure patients with LV systolic
dysfunction in atrial fibrillation or in some cases to patients in sinus rhythm who remain symptomatic despite maximal therapy with other therapies
• If used, administer a low doses


dobutamine, dopamine are what type of drugs and when do we use them for heart fail pts?

b adrenergic agonists
– Used i.v. for temporary hemodynamic support for
acutely ill patients (acute decompensated heart


Milrinone is what type of drug and when do we administer to heart fail pts?

• Phopsphodiesterase inhibitors (
– Use limited to i.v. administration for acutely ill patients
– Positive inotrope and also produce vasodilation


Mainstay of heart failure management
• Reduce fluid volume and preload
• Reduction in heart size improves efficiency and reduces wall stress
• Reduce edema (and its symptoms)



Diuretics reduce:

fluid volume and preload and edema


Furosemide is what type of dieuretic?

loop diuretic
Widely used – most heart failure patients require chronic
therapy with a loop diuretic to maintain euvolemia
– Promote K+loss - hypokalemia


Chlorothiazide is what type of diuretic?

Thiazide; Rarely used alone
– Combination therapy with loop diuretics in patients refractory to loop diuretics alone
– Promote K+loss - hypokalemia


Issue with loop diuretics and thiazides?

promote K loss--hypokalemia


Amiloride and Triamterene are what kind of diuretic?

K sparing diuretic
Weak diuretic activity but limited K+ and Mg2+ wasting


Benefit provided by VENOdialtors?

Increase venous capacitance and thereby decrease preload


Benefit provided by arterial vasodialtors

Arterial vasodilator
– Reduce systemic vascular resistance
– Results in increased stroke volume
– hydralazine


ACE inhibitors, ARBs, isorbide dinitrate/hydralizine are all examples of

balanced or mixed vasodialators: reduced atrial and venous


The failing heart dt systolic heart fail is very sensitive to
changes in



Potent arterial constrictor (afterload) that promotes Na and water retnetion through it's effect on glomerular filtration and aldosterone secreation

Angiotensin II


How does Ang II promote SNS activity

increasing neuronal and adrenal medullary catecholamine release


What effect does Ang II have on heart muscle?

- Arrhythmogenic
- Promotes myocardial hypertrophy and apoptosis


Promotes Na and water retention and K+ secreation



What effect does Aldosterone have on the heart?

Stimulates fibrosis in the heart and
vasculature as well as Cardiac hypertrophy


Captopil, lisinopril, enalapri are all:

Ace inhibitors


What actions do Ace Inhibitors cause in heart fail pts?
effect on afterload and preload?

– Decrease systemic vascular resistance (afterload)
– Reduce left ventricular filling pressure (preload)
– Reduces Na+retention


ACE inhibitors will _____ survival rate and ______ renal function

Found to increase survival rate
Can decrease renal function particularly in heart failure


_______particularly if you use ACE inhibitors with with aldosterone antagonist

Hyperkalemia may develop


Losartan is an example of an:

Angiotensin Receptor1 Blockers or ARBs


When would we prescribe Lorsartan?

• Actions in heart failure
– similar to ACE inhibitors
• Like ACE inhibitors, beneficial effect on survival
• Alternative for patients that cannot tolerate ACE
inhibitor therapy


What effect does Isosorbide Dinitrate/Hydralazine
Combination have on preload and afterload?

– Decreases preload and afterload
– As a result, increases stroke volume


Does Isosorbide Dinitrate/Hydralazine Combination effect overall survival in heart fail pts?

• Like ACE inhibitors, found to improve survival rate in clinical trials
– Particularly effective in the African American population


When do we prescribe Isosorbide Dinitrate/Hydralazine Combination?

• Used when ACE inhibitors or ARBs not tolerated
• Less development of tolerance with combination


Provides mixed arterial and venous dilation

Isosorbide Dinitrate/Hydralazine Combination


Spironolactone, eplerenone are what types of drugs?

Aldosterone antagonists


What actions do we see from aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone and eplerenone) in heart fail pts?

– Reduce edema
– Decrease fibrosis in myocardium and vessels(counteracts some aspects of adverse remodeling)
• Improve mortality rate and reduce symptoms
– even in the presence of an ACE inhibitor


Negative side effect of aldosterone antagonists?

• Hyperkalemia – necessary to monitor potassium levels


What type of heart fail pts recieve aldosterone antagonists?

• Added with moderately severe to severe symptoms (NYHA III or IV) of heart failure


Action of Beta blockers in heart fail patients:

– Decrease: arrhythmias, oxygen demand, blood pressure
– Prevent disease progression (remodeling)
– Inhibit cardiotoxic actions of catecholamines
– Reduce b1receptor down-regulation


What type of improvements do we see when we put heart fail pts on B blockers?

Improves: Symptoms, ventricular function, mortality rate


What do we need to be cautious of when prescribing B blockers to heart fail pts?

• Can initially worsen cardiac function
– must start at a low dose and gradually increased to a maximum tolerated dose
• Not all b blockers proven useful (genetic variability?)
– metoprolol (succinate; extended release form), carvedilol, and bisoprolol shown to provide benefit


LCZ696 is a _____ and used in comb with:

– neprolysin inhibitor and combine with ARB (valsartan)


a peptidase that degrades endogenous vasoactive peptides including bradykinin, ANPs, and others
– Inhibition increases levels of these substances countering the neurohormonal activation that contributes to
vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and maladaptive

• Neprolysin


Non drug therapies for heart fail

Salt restriction
• Bi-ventricular pacing
• Implantable
Devices (ICD)
• Left ventricular assist
device (LVAD)
• Heart transplant


Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

Relief of pulmonary and systemic congestion
Address correctable causes of impaired diastolic function
Diuretics to reduce pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema


In pts with heart fail with preserved EF what do we need to be careful of when administering diuretics

– Use cautiously to avoid under filling of LV
– Could reduce stroke volume


ACE inhibitors, b blockers, ARBs in heart fail pts with preserved EF:

have no demonstrated mortality benefit


Role of ionotropic drugs in heart fail with preserved EF

Because contractile function is preserved, inotropic drugs have no role in this condition