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*CARDIOLOGY > HEART SOUNDS > Flashcards

Flashcards in HEART SOUNDS Deck (35):
1

S1 represented by which on the QRS?

R wave

2

Which side of the stethoscope is best to listen to high pitch S1/S2, aortic/mitral murmurs?

Diaphragm

3

Which side of the stethoscope is best used to listen to low pitch sounds S3/S4, mitral stenosis murmurs?

Bell

4

Lub dub tuh is which ❤️sound

S3

5

Tuh Lub Dub is which ❤️sound

S4

6

Which area of the ❤️is best to auscultate for the splitting of S2 during inspiration?

Pulmonic Area

7

Which area of the ❤️is best to auscultate for the S3/S4, mitral stenosis murmurs?

Tricuspid and mitral area

8

When using the bell to listen for S3 sounds, is it best to use light or firm pressure?

Light

9

Why would I ask my patient to sit up and lean forward with auscultation?

To listen for aortic and pulmonic murmurs

10

Systolic murmurs are caused by which area of stenosis?

Aortic and pulmonic stenosis
Tricuspid and mitral regurgitation

11

Crescendo decrescendo murmurs are heard in?

Aortic stenosis

12

Systolic ejection murmur is heard in?

Aortic stenosis

13

If a murmur radiates to my neck/carotid area what's the cause?

Aortic stenosis

14

Aortic regurgitation, pulmonic regurgitation, tricuspid and mitral stenosis occurs during which phase of the ❤️cycle?

Diastole

15

Halo/pan systolic murmurs are best heard where?

Apex of the ❤️
Also known as the mitral area

16

If a murmur radiates to my axilla/armpit which murmur is it?

Mitral regurgitation

17

Which ventricle is the workforce of the body?

Left ventricle

18

Describe mitral regurgitation

As S1 occurs blood flows backwards in LA because the MV doesn't close fully.
The Pressure in LV > than LA when the AV is closed.
The AV opens up but the pressure difference remains unchanged causing regurgitation to occur the entire cycle.
The LA becomes compliant.
Flat murmur occurs because the intensity of the blood flow does not change.

19

During MV Prolapse what causes the mid systolic click?

Tension of the cordae tendinae prevents leaflets from fully collapsing into LA

20

A mid systolic click with a late systolic murmur is heard during which condition?

MV prolapse?

21

Describe aortic stenosis

MV closes and the ❤️begins to close against a closed valve. When enough pressure build up the AV snaps open causing and ejection click.
Blood begins to flow and as the force increases the murmur increases.
When filling is completed the murmur decreases.
Hence crescendo-decrescendo name

22

Which condition causes early diastolic murmur?

Aortic regurgitation

23

A decrescendo murmur is heard during which condition?

Aortic regurgitation

24

Describe aortic regurgitation

AV doesn't close fully and the pressure in the aorta is > the LV
And this is where the murmur is more intense in sound
The intensity decreases as the pressure in LV eventually increases due to simultaneous filling from the LA

25

What is pre-systolic accentuation?

At the end of diastole when the atria contracts to push the remaining blood into the LV

26

Opening snap with a mid diastolic rumble is heard during which condition?

Mitral stenosis

27

Describe mitral stenosis

MV doesn't close fully and the pressure in LA > LV at the start of diastole
The leaflets snap open and rapid filling occurs
This causes a rumble
As the pressure begins to equalize the murmur decreases
Finally the intensity increases again as the LA contracts to push out the remaining blood (pre-systolic attenuation)

28


Volume overload occurs during which abnormal ❤️sound?

S3

29

Define concentric hypertrophy and it's cause

When the ❤️ contracts again increases pressure it increase in size making the ventricle stiff

Causes such as HTN

30

Pressure overload occurs during which abnormal ❤️sound?

S4

31

Ventricular gallop and atrial gallop refers to which abnormal ❤️sounds?

S3 and S4

32

S3 is heard when?

After S2

33

S4 occurs when?

At the end of diastole when the LA is contracting to send blood into a stiff LV
Right Before S1

34

Describe the occurrence of S4

The ❤️contracts against increased pressure causing concentric hypertrophy.
The sound is heard @ the end of diastole when the LA is contracting to send blood into the stiff LV right before the start of S1

35

A patient should lay in which position to best gear S3 and S4?

Left lateral decubitus