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What is the symbol for heat energy



What is heat energy?

Heat energy is the total energy of all the movement of the particles in a substance.


What does heat energy depend on?

-the speed of the particles
-the number of particles
-the type of particles in the substance


What is heat energy measured in?



What is temperature?

Moving particles have kinetic energy. The temperature of a substance is the average kinetic energy of all the particles in that substance. As it is an average, the number of particles and the size of the container the substance is in do not affect the temperature.


How is heat energy different from temperature?

If a 1L container of water is 100°C and a 500ml container of water is also 100°C, the temperature is the same however the 1L has more heat energy because it has a greater number of particles with the same temperature and therefore the total energy is more.


Temperature is a measure of energy

But not energy


What is temperature measured in?

Degrees (°C)


What is absolute zero?

The temperature at which all particle motion stops



What is the specific heat capacity symbol?



What is specific heat capacity?

How much energy is needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a substance by one degree Celsius


What is the heat energy equation?

Q = mcΔT

where Q is the amount of heat energy absorbed OR released in J
m = kg
c in Jkg(-1)°C(-1)
ΔT in °C


What happens when heat energy is added or removed from a substance? (3)

-Volume changes: when substances gain heat energy they usually expand because their particles vibrate more quickly and occupy more space. When they lose heat energy they usually contract
-Temperature changes: when substances absorb heat energy usually their temperature increases, whereas a substance that loses energy will usually have a temperature decrease.
-State (phase) changes: if solids absorb sufficient heat energy, they change into liquid or gas. Liquids change into solids if they lose enough heat energy.


Phase changes terms

Solid to gas: sublimation
Gas to solid: deposition


What must be needed for a phase change?

Heat energy must be either added or removed. When heat energy is added to a state of matter, its particles vibrate more (solids) or move faster (liquids and gases). The faster the particles vibrate/move, the further the particles move apart and the weaker the forces between them becomes, resulting in a change of state.


What are the two places where temperature stays the same when heat is being added

when a phase change is occurring.

The temp stays the same when the ice melts into water.
The temp stays the same while water boils into steam


What is latent heat

the heat energy of the flat sections of the heating curve. The temp does not change as heat E supplied is being used to overcome the attractive forces between the particles so that they move further apart and the sate changes.


Why do melting and freezing occur at the same temperature?

During freezing, heat energy is removed. During melting, heat energy is being absorbed.


What is latent heat

The latent heat of a substance is the amount of heat energy absorbed or released when one kilogram of a substance changes state while the temp remains constant.


What are the two types of latent heat?

Latent heat of fusion - the heat energy required to change a solid to liquid
Latent heat of vaporisation - the heat energy required to change a liquid to gas


What is latent heat measured in

J Kg^-1


What is the formula for latent heat

Q = mL

Q = heat energy absorbed or released in J
m= kg
K = latent heat of vaporisation or fusion, in JKg^-1


Equation for total amount of E involved in a temp change where there is a phase change

Q(total) = Q(latent) + Q(specific)


Which substance has a really high latent heat of fusion value?

Water. 340000Jkg-1


How do chilly bins work

When food or drinks are stored in a chilly bin with ice, the heat E required to melt the ice comes from the food or drinks - this leaves the food or drinks at a lower temp, as heat E has been removed from them to heat the ice and change the ice into water.


How does water help prevent frost damage?

Heat energy is released by water when it freezes. If frost is predicted, farmers will turn on sprinklers. As the water falls on the plants it will begin to freeze, causing heat E to be released into the surroundings and plants (such as grape vines and stone fruit). This heat E helps to keep the plants warm enough so they are not damaged by frosts. However, this method only works when the air temp does not fall far below freezing.


Which substance has one of the highest latent heat of vaporisation?

Water. 22 600 005 J needed to evaporate 1kg of water.


Why do we feel cold when we are wet?

When you come out of the shower or the pool, heat E from your body causes the water on your body to vaporise. As a result of losing heat energy from your body, you feel cold.


Why does steam burn

When steam condenses to liquid water, it releases heat E into its surroundings. When just 1mL steam condenses into water, it releases 2260J of heat E. If this condensed water then has to cool from 100°C to body temp (37°C), even more heat energy will be released. For this reason, a steam burn at 100°C is far worse than a burn from the same volume of boiling water at 100°C.


What is power

when a substance changes temp, heat E is either absorbed or released. The rate at which this occurs is the POWER.


Power equation

P = E/t

P in W
E in J
t in s

1W = 1Js-1