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Flashcards in Hellfire Deck (32):

5 Sections

Seeker, warhead, guidance, propulsion, control


R IMCPU Failure

The HMS is not functional when the R IMCPU has failed


Missile Unlatched

1. Avoid nose low attitudes and excessive bank angles.
2. Land as soon as practicable



A hangfire is an event when a rocket or missile motor
ignites and produces thrust but hangs up on/in the
launcher and does not separate from the helicopter.
The resulting missile thrust is transferred to the
helicopter and may cause control difficulty and potential
structural damage. HELLFIRE missile thrust lasts for
approximately 2.5 seconds. Control of the aircraft is
crucial during this period and recovery is dependent
upon altitude and obstacles. Failure to immediately
counter missile thrust with control inputs may cause
loss of aircraft control.
WARNING: Activation of jettison switch during missile hangfire may cause missile launcher package to veer off course, possibly into the aircraft or rotor disk.
CAUTION: If a HELLFIRE launcher is jettissoned with a single missile on the inboard launcher rail, the launcher may contact the landing gear skid tube.
In event of missile hangfire proceed as follows:
1. Jettison switch(es)- Activate. (only in event of residual fire.


3 Types

Dummy (M34)
Training (M36 Captive flight trainer)
NOTE: If a training missile is on the launcher rail, live missiles cannot be launched


LOBL Search Time Limits

Above 90 degrees F 30 minute limit for continuous scan for the AGM 114 A, C, F,
Above 125 deg F 30 minute limit for AGM 114K
No limit below 90 deg F or in LOAL


AGM-114A (SAL 1)

Primarily for live fire training
Original design missile with the basic autopilot and low smoke rocket motor
Highest trajectory


AGM-114C/F (SAL 1)

Improved visibility (ILV) capability
Lower trajectories than the AGM-114A
Contain a minimum smoke rocket motor (less smoke than the AGM-114A)


AGM-114K (SAL 2)

Highest probability of reacquiring a target if the missile flies into low clouds (The guidance algorithm accounts for this condition by design)
If the target is lost after initial acquisition, the seeker will continue to point at the target. Instead of continuing to cilmb and lfyinga normal profile, the missile is programmed ot turn to point in the same direction as the seeker. This causes the missile to fly down (out of the clouds) toward the target and maximize the probability of reacquiring the target.



Blast fragmentation missile disperses fragments in all directions upon detonation.



Thermobaric Missile disperese fragments in all directions upon detonation.



minimum altitude of 15 feet above the highest point within 200ft of the launch aircraft
Do not launch at airspeeds greater than 90 KIAS
Minimum engaement: Hover 700m, running 800m



Missiles may experience anomalies when in the vicinity of high power communication, navigation, or RADAR transmitters. Ex. Failure to track laser source, missile failures
Most AGM-114F-A emit burning debris, HF missile debris deflector (HMDD) may be required.


Two types of designation

Autonomous and Remote


Autonomous Designation

Launching aircraft designates its own target/designator is the source of the laser beam.
Aircraft can fire from close enough to the target to ensure accuarte designation without extensive exposure of the launching aircraft to the enemy threat.


Remote Designation

Teh target aircraf is designated by a source other than the launching aircraft, or a remote ground-based designator
Allows standoff at greater distances from the target
Extends the hellfire's effect range
Designator aircraft must not be within plus or minus 30 degree safety fan from fornt of launch aircraft to target.
Designator must be within 60 degree azimuth of the launcher to target line
Aircraft orientation must be such that the missile is not pointed to fly thorugh the aircraft to target line of sight of the designator aircraft.
The minimum distance between the remote designator and the launch aircraft is 15 meters to the side, and 50 meters to the rear.


Lock On Before Launch (LOBL)

Missile laser seeker has acquired and locked on to the reflected laser energy from the target prior to launch.
The LOBL mode may be used when the following conditions are present:
1) The visibility conditions allow seeker lock-on at the launch range.
2) The cloud ceiling is higher than the LOBL trajectory specifications
3) The threat to the launch platform does not warrant the use of delay designation or launch from a defilade position.


Lock On After Launch

Missile clears the launcher rail prior to the laser seeker scanning for and tracking the properly coded reflected laser energy.



The LOAL-DIR mode is used when the target is within the missile LOS prior to launch. LOAL-DIR is used when any of the following conditions exist:
1) Low cloud ceilings are present in the battlefield area.
2) Poor visibility prevents the use of a LOBL launch.
3) Threats to the launching aircraft (ex. laser detectors) prevent designation of the target prior to launch.
4) allows aircraft to launch and delay designating the target.



260ft obstacle, 600 m standoff;used to clear a low mask.



1000ft obstacle, 1500m standoff; used to clear a high mask


Autonomous LOAL indirect

After acquisition, the aircraft drops below th eamsk and launches the missile. After launch, the aircraft pops-up, reacquires, and designates the taget until misiile impact. This mode reduces aircraft exposure to the enemy.


Launch Modes

STBY, Manual, Normal, Ripple


Delivery Techniues

Single, Rapid, Ripple



Enables performing the BIT (30-47s to complete), code missiles


Manual Launch Modes

Selects, codes, and readies one missile at a time
Primary code
It will allow the system to step between missiles
Minimum 15 second interval between firing multiple missiles


Normal Launch Mode (rapid fire)

The firing of muliple missiles in flight simultaneously) wit hthe same laser code is called rapid fire.
Allows a single aircraft to engage several targets with much less exposure time
Can be used in either autonomous or remote designation
Normal mode is used to service multiple targets quickly
8 seconds between missiles
Determine the TOF, max delay, laser turn on time, and laser on target time
RHE automatically selects, spin-up, and encodes all PRI coded missiles until the inventory is exhausted (RHE will not recode alternate coded missiles)


Ripple Launch Mode

Firing of multiple missiles (in flight simultaneously) with two separate laser codes
1 missile on the PRI code will be launched then a missile from the ALT code will be launched 1.5 seconds later
Requires two laser designators
Employed during autonomous and remote or double-remote missions using LOBL, LOAL, or some combination
PRI and ALT codes are automatically toggled/Firing order is selected by the RHE
Multiple launches in ripple mode are quicker than in rapid fire, since it doesnt require moving the laser spot from one target to another
When using ripple fire, the PRI coded missile is launched first then ALT


LOBL Constraints

40 degrees, laser is constraints driver


LOAL Constraints

15 degrees
1. MMS LOS, with MMS mode slect switch in PREPT
2. Heading to DIR WPT, if in DIR WPT navigation mode, w/ MMS mode select switch in FWD



refers to a portion of the laser beam energy reflected off an obscurant (fog, haze, etc) back toward the designator.
If laser backscatter energy is stronger than the laser energy reflected from the target, the seeker can track the obscurant instead of the true target
More likely to occur with autonomous lasing mode
If the seeker LOS diverges form the MMS LOS by 4 or more degrees, the symbology will separate (drift apart), and the firing circuits are inhibited.


Backscatter Avoidance

To eliminate a backscatter lock on, lasing the target should be discontinued for a short time and the target redisgnated. If a back scatter problem still exists it may be necessary to discontinue lasing, move to another position, and redisgnate the target.