Hematology Test 1: Chapters 16, 17, 20, 35, 36 Flashcards Preview

Med Lab Tech Fall 2016 > Hematology Test 1: Chapters 16, 17, 20, 35, 36 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology Test 1: Chapters 16, 17, 20, 35, 36 Deck (43):
1

Definition:
A malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue, characterized by replacement of normal bone marrow elements with abnormal (neoplastic) blood cells.

Leukemia

2

This type of leukemia is rapidly progressive and is characterized by an abnormal expansion of immature cells or blasts.

Acute leukemia

3

Chronic or Acute:
-Occurs in all ages
-Sudden clinical onset
-less than 6 months if untreated
-immature leukemic cells
-mild to severe anemia
- mild to severe thrombocytopenia
- variable WBC count
-mild organomegaly

Acute

4

Chronic or Acute:
-Tends to occur more in Adults
-Insidious clinical onset
-2-6 years if untreated
-Mature leukemic cells
-Mild anemia
-Mild thrombocytopenia
-Increased WBC count
-Prominent organomegaly

Chronic

5

What are the 4 MAJOR types of leukemia?

-Acute myeloid leukemia
-Chronic myeloid leukemia
-Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia
-Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

6

What is the current ratio of adults to children for incidence with leukemia?
a. 10:1
b. 10:4
c. 4:1
d. 5:1

a. 10:1

7

What leukemia is the most common form in children?

Acute lymphoblastic (lymphocytic) leukemia

8

What leukemia is the most common form in adults?

Acute myeloid leukemia

9

What are other names for AML?

-AML- acute myelogenous leukemia
-ANLL- acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia
-AMoL- acute monocytic leukemia
-AMMoL- acute myelomonocytic leukemia

10

What are the 3 types of lymphoid leukemias?

ALL- acute lymphocytic leukemia
CLL- chronic lymphocytic leukemia
HCL- hairy cell leukemia

11

What are the 2 major types of classifications for leukemias?

FAB- The French-American-British classification
WHO- World Health Organization

12

FAB classifies based on what?

Morphology, BM M:E ratio, and cytochemistry

13

What viruses could predispose you to an increased risk of developing leukemia?

-EBV- Epstein Barr virus- associated with Burkitt's Lymphoma
-HTLV I- Retro virus associated with adult T-cell leukemia
-HTLV II- associated with atypical HCL

14

What can increase your risk of developing leukemia?

-viruses
-bone marrow damage
-Chromosomal abnormalities
-hematologic disorders

15

What types of bone marrow damage can increase the risk for developing leukemia?

radiation, chemicals, and drugs

16

What types of chromosomal abnormalities can increase the risk for developing leukemia?

-Down Syndrome- Trisomy 21
-Klinefelter Syndrome
-Neurofibromatosis- Elephant man's disease; tumors form
- Fanconi's anemia: congenital form of aplastic anemia

17

What type of hematologic disorders can increase the risk of developing leukemia?

-Polycythemia Vera: stem cell defect
-Aplastic anemia: stem cell defect; BM replaced with fat
- Myelofibrosis
-Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

18

Pathogenesis:
What type of disorders could you see in the bone marrow?

-Anemia
-Thrombocytopenia
-Neutropenia (expect in CML); increased risk in infection

19

Pathogenesis:
What organs could you see in organ enlargement and infiltration?

- Lymphadenopathy
- Splenomegaly: red cell graveyard
- CNS tissue
- Gingival hypertrophy: invasion of gums enlarging tissue structure

20

What type of immunologic malfunction could you expect with leukemia?

Impaired humoral and cellular immunity

21

Morphology, cytochemistry, immunologic markers, and the nucleus are all used/looked at for what?

To diagnose leukemia

22

LAP stain differentiates between what?

Leukamoid reaction and CML

23

True or False:
The LAP stain will have an increased reaction to CML

False: Increased reaction occurs with Leukamoid reactions

24

This stain is used to differentiate AML from ALL

MPO- myeloperoxidase

25

Phospholipids, neutral fats, and sterols are stained by this.
It is the most sensitive stain for granulocytic precursors
Positive cells are more black/increased intensity of the stain
Used to differentiate AML from ALL

SBB- Sudan Black B

26

TRAP stain is used for identifying what?

Hairy Cell Leukemia

27

Nonspecific esterase + equals _______

acute monocytic leukemia

28

If a test comes back NSE+ what does that mean?

Monocytic leukemia

29

Nonspecific Esterase Stain (NSE) differentiate what 2 leukemia?

Monocytic leukemia from Granulocytic leukemia

30

Stains the glycogen in cells
Aids in diagnosis of Di Guglielmo disease or erythroleukemia
Think M6!
Not commonly used for classification of acute leukemias

Periodic Acid Schiff stain (PAS)

31

The following are CD markers for what type of cell?:
CD 14
CD 33
CD 13
CD 117

Myeloid cells

32

The following are CD markers for what type of cell?:
CD 19
CD 10- CALLA
CD 20
HLA-DR

Lymphoid cells

33

These markers are useful in assessing cell lineage in ALL

Cytoplasmic markers

34

This is a unique nuclear enzyme present in stem cells and precursor B and T lymphoid cells

Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)

35

If TdT is negative, the patient most likely has what type of leukemia?

AML

36

If TdT is positive, the patient most like has what type of leukemia?

Lymphocytic leukemia; either CLL or ALL

37

This is an essential component in the evaluation of a newly diagnosed leukemic patient. It has roles in diagnosis, sub-classification, prognosis, selections of appropriate therapy, and monitoring the effects of therapy.

Cytogenetics

38

What does Southern Blot look at?

DNA structure to ID the specific disease

39

This type of molecular analysis looks at the amplification and is more common in medicine today

PCR- polymerase chain reaction

40

This type of molecular analysis is a fluorescent test that looks at various DNA labeled probes

In Situ Hybridization

41

This translocation is seen in CML

t(9:22) Philadelphia chromosome

42

Flow cytometry uses ______ for the cell in order to fluoresce using monoclonal antibody

excitation

43

This deletion/translocation on 13q14 with/without Trisomy 12 is seen with what leukemia?

B-CLL