Hematology Unit 1 BL class of 2019 Flashcards Preview

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1

hematology is concerned with what in relation to blood?

nature, function, diseases

2

what are the 3 major types of cells in blood?

erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), platelets

3

peripheral blood is what?

blood flowing through arteries and veins

4

what is hematopoiesis?

the making of blood in marrow from hematopoietic stem cells, differentiation of development, production of all types of blood cells

5

cellular component of blood makes up _______-______% of its volume.

40-45%

6

what is the rest of blood (the liquid stuff) called?

plasma

7

what do you need to do to blood when drawing for tests?

know if plasma or serum is needed and what anticoagulant you need

8

list the components of plasma, buffy, and RBC layers of blood samples.

Plasma is in the plasma, buffy is WBC and platelets, then RBC

9

erythrocytes

bulk of cellular blood. lack nucleus, lack mitochondria. contain mucho mucho hemoglobin. 120 day life span. 175 billion made per day.

10

hemoglobin

tetrameric protein, reason RBCs are red. most has 2 alpha globulin chains and 2 beta globulin chains—>Hemoglobin A. each of the tetramers are bound to a heme prosthetic group

11

mutations in hemoglobin can lead to:

molecules that bind O2 less well, unstable molecules (premature breakdown—hemolysis), polymerization into long chains/crystals, abnormally shaped/fragile cells

12

hemoglobin S

most common mutation in RBC, leads to sickle cell disease. glu—>val at 6th position in beta globin chain

13

imbalances in alpha or beta globin chains lead to ______.

thalassemias

14

what is porphyria?

mutations in enzymes involved in synthesis of heme prosthetic group

15

what type of metabolism do RBCs depend on?

anerobic

16

mutations in genes coding for enzymes needed for anaerobic metabolism cause _______.

hemolytic anemia. most common version is G6PD (x linked, 15% of african male population). G6PD is most common human enzyme defect.

17

why are RBC’s shaped like a biconcave disc?

provides 40% more surface area than sphere with same volume, allowing for more gas exchange. allows them also to squeeze into different shapes due to ratio. allows them to move through/be culled in endothelium of the spleen

18

what allows the RBC to be deformable and still maintain its structural integrity?

a 2D elastic network of cytoskeletal proteins tethered to cytoplasmic domains on the transmembrane proteins in the membrane.

19

what substrates does bone marrow need to make RBCs?

iron (can be decreased due to diet, blood loss, etc.), vit. B12 and folic acid, erythropoietin

20

what are the 5 WBCs:

lymphocytes, neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, eosinophils, basophils

21

lymphocytes

key players in adaptive immune response (development of memory after exposure to an infectious agent)

22

innate immunity

protection against infection that relies on pre-existing mechanisms. capable of rapid response

23

neutrophils

WBC responsible for finding, ingesting (phagocytosis), digesting bacteria, cell debris, dead tissue. 7 hours half life in peripheral circulation. 70 billion made per day.

24

malignancies arise from cells of _______ origin.

hematopoietic. all are clonal, neoplastic (cells have undergone several mutations altering proliferative/differentiation capacity). some are classic mutations (translocations, etc.) others have no characteristic cytogenetic abnormalities

25

lukemia

malignant cells from bone marrow are in the bloodstream

26

lymphomas

extramedullary collections of malignant lymphoid cells (involving lymph nodes or organs)

27

what are the two classifications of lukemia?

acute or chronic. acute=cells are immature, progression is rapid. chronic=cells are more mature, more indolent course

28

hemostasis

arresting of bleeding, allows blood to clot in response to damaged vessels. due to platelets. results from complex interactions btw platelets, endothelial lining of bv, and coagulation factors in response to endothelial disruption

29

how many platelets can a megakaryocyte produce?

5000

30

complete blood count began as what?

a measurement of Hg and cellular components of peripheral blood.