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Flashcards in Henry VIII and Wolsey Deck (47)
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Henry's reign?



Brief description of H8

Renaissance man, chivalric, accessible


How was H8 different from H7?

H8 ascends peacefully & only knew wealth & expectation
Both had little preparation for the crown


What were H8's aims? (4)

War & glory; be a knight, emulate H5, rivalry w/ Francis & Charles
Popularity with nobles & courtiers
A male heir
Focus on pleasure of being king (left day-day ruling to chief ministers)


what were H8's two immediate actions when he came to power & why?

Executes Dudley & Empson (H7’s financial enforcers); which heralds a new reign
Married Catherine of Aragon; in court since 1502; right thing to do & alliance with Spain


Wolsey's dates in power?



Describe Wolsey's rise to power (points)

Organises 2nd French invasion; successful & so drawn into peace negotiations
Became influential in church – built up titles & wealth
Becomes Papal legate; on line with monarch’s powers


What was Wolsey's early life like?

Son of a butcher
Boy bachelor at Cambridge


Give 5 of Wolsey's titles

Bishop of Tournai
Archbishop of York
Lord Chancellor
Papal Legate


How did luck help Wolsey secure power?

A new court atmosphere meant focus was placed on ability not birth
H8 wanted to be different from H7


How did talent help Wolsey secure power?

Wolsey was very skilled; talents noticed during the organisation of the 2nd French expedition, also boy bachelor


How did hard work help Wolsey secure power?

worked to a high standard & fast; organised Flander envoy in 3 days before H8 even realised


How did Wolsey control the nobles?

merciless towards those who tried to discredit him; removed those who got to close to H8


Who was the Duke of Buckingham

Supposedly suggested the King may not be King for much longer & was executed for treason
Wolsey & Buckingham didn't get on; seen as a warning to nobility


What was the expulsion of the minions?

firing of 4 men from the new post; gentlemen of the privy chamber - kings close attendants.

Seen as Wolsey removing King's intimates
H/w - Wolsey ill at time, took 9 months to act, men already intimate companions


Who was Paulet?

Paulet humiliated young Wolsey who later summoned him to London on trumped up charge & demanded his daily attendance in court - never charged but costs virtually ruined him
Seen as a warning about crossing Wolsey


How did Wolsey's management of wealth help him stay in power?

Money used as political tool to create magnificence


How rich was Wolsey?

At height of power he was estimated to be 10* richer than nearest rival


Why did H8 put so trust in Wolsey (3)

Wanted to deputise
As a 'low born' Wolsey couldn't threaten the King's position like other nobles
H8 enjoyed how Wolsey annoyed the nobles


What was Wolsey's domestic policy aims ?

Stay in power as long as possible
Please the king


what did Wolsey need to do to achieve his aims?

please the king & raise money for war


What financial changes/acts did Wolsey impose (4)

Eltham ordinances
Amicable Grant
Act of Resumption


What was the subsidy?
Good or bad?

flexible tax on parliament grants
Good; replaced the old system as it brought in more money - based on realistic weath estimation


What was the Amicable Grant?
Good or bad?

Tax on ordinary people / church for war - given 10 days to find the money
bad; resulted in unrest of 10,000 people & was cancelled - humiliation


what were the Eltham Ordinances?
good or bad?

aimed at reorganising chaotic privy finances - really an attempt to control the nobility's access to H8
bad; Wolsey never secured control of court/royal household


What was the act of resumption?
good or bad?

reclaiming of crown lands
good; increased revenue


wolseys domestic policy; Finances

successful in raising money for H8; £76,000

failed in Amicable grant & that he his gains failed couldn't finance war costs; £1.7


What legal changes did Wolsey want to make

aimed to tackle slow & unfair delivery of justice; Star chamber & Chancery


How successful was the Star court?

Wolsey strengthened it & increased the number of cases heard from 12 to 120

Hoowever, he often used it to attack nobles (making enemies)


How successful was the Chancery chamber?

tried the poors cases - friend to poor

put no measures in to continue this