Flashcards in Hettema 1 & 2 Deck (11)
What are the problems associated with eukaryotes being much larger than prokaryotes?
- sa:v ratio is low
- hard to keep reactant concentration sufficiently high
How can the concentrations of reactants be sufficiently high for efficient metabolism?
Compartmentalisation of cellular functions
Describe the cytosol.
Aqueous phase of the cytoplasm excluding the organelles, membranes and insoluble structures (cytoskeleton)
In which organism is the periplasmic space found and where is it within that organism?
Prokaryotes - in-between the inner and outer membranes surrounding the prokaryote
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Granular body consisting of RNA and protein. Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosome subunit assembly. (not membrane bound)
What are the two major endomembrane pathways?
Secretory - ER, Golgi, secretory vesicles
Endocytic - endosomes, phagosomes, lysosomes, autophagosomes
What is the function of the RER?
- synthesis of proteins for secretory purposes/incorporation into the plasma membrane
O_____ of fatty acids gives off H______ P______.
H_____ P_____ is broken down via the enzyme c______ which is contained within the peroxisome.
NB: peroxisomes contain a high proportion of proteins therefore can crystallise easily
What is the plant cell wall made up of?
- cellulose microfibrils --> rigid structure
- plasmodesmata connect neighbouring cells within plant cell wall
Where is the localisation of the mitochondria within a sperm cell?
Single coiled mitochondrion within the midpiece