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Flashcards in Hettema 1 & 2 Deck (11)
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1

What are the problems associated with eukaryotes being much larger than prokaryotes?

- sa:v ratio is low
- hard to keep reactant concentration sufficiently high

2

How can the concentrations of reactants be sufficiently high for efficient metabolism?

Compartmentalisation of cellular functions

3

Describe the cytosol.

Aqueous phase of the cytoplasm excluding the organelles, membranes and insoluble structures (cytoskeleton)

4

In which organism is the periplasmic space found and where is it within that organism?

Prokaryotes - in-between the inner and outer membranes surrounding the prokaryote

5

What is the function of the nucleolus?

Granular body consisting of RNA and protein. Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosome subunit assembly. (not membrane bound)

6

What are the two major endomembrane pathways?

Secretory - ER, Golgi, secretory vesicles
Endocytic - endosomes, phagosomes, lysosomes, autophagosomes

7

What is the function of the RER?

- synthesis of proteins for secretory purposes/incorporation into the plasma membrane

8

Peroxisomes:
O_____ of fatty acids gives off H______ P______.
H_____ P_____ is broken down via the enzyme c______ which is contained within the peroxisome.

Oxidation
Hydrogen Peroxide
catalase

NB: peroxisomes contain a high proportion of proteins therefore can crystallise easily

9

What is the plant cell wall made up of?

- cellulose microfibrils --> rigid structure
- plasmodesmata connect neighbouring cells within plant cell wall

10

Where is the localisation of the mitochondria within a sperm cell?

Single coiled mitochondrion within the midpiece

11

Give the 3 main cytoskeletal elements.

- microtubules
- microfilaments e.g. actin filaments
- intermediate filaments