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NMF: Ophthalmology > high-yield facts > Flashcards

Flashcards in high-yield facts Deck (42):
1

Which muscle controls eye opening?

Muller's muscle
- 3rd nerve

2

Which muscle controls eye closing?

Orbicularis oculi
- 7th nerve

3

Give features of Horner syndrome

ptosis, myosis, ipsilateral anhydrosis

4

Where does the orbital septum lie?

posterior to orbicularis oculi muscle

5

Where is inflammation located in orbital cellulitis?

posterior to septum

6

Where are tears produced?

lacrimal fossa

7

Where do tears drain?

lacrimal punctum

8

Which nerve is required for reflex tear production?

trigeminal

9

Which nerve tells brain that tears needed ?

5th nerve

10

Which nerve controls tear production?

7th nerve

11

Which type of conjunctiva lines
a) the inner surface of the eyelid?
b) eyeball?

a) palpebral
b) bulbar

12

Which type of conjunctiva is more vascular?

palpebral

13

What type of secretions are seen in viral conjunctivitis?

thick, watery

14

What type of secretions are seen in bacterial conjunctivitis?

yellow/green

15

Which type of conjunctivitis has a very red eye?

bacterial

16

Give the layers of the cornea

Epithelium
Bowman's membrane
Stroma
Descement's membrane
Endothelium

17

Which layer of the cornea maintains transparency?

endothelium
--> pumps fluid out of stroma

18

What attaches the lens to the ciliary body?

zonules
- dec in tension allows for near focusing

19

What makes up the uvea?

the iris, ciliary body and choroid

20

What is the role of the uvea?

- absorbing reflected light
- nutritional support to eye structures

21

How is aqueous humour produced?

produced by filtration of blood at the ciliary processes and active secretion

22

Describe the path of aqueous humour

flows from posterior to anterior chamber and drains into the canal of Schlemm and trabecular meshwork

23

What are cells in the aqueous and flare signs of?

Uveitis

24

What are the elements that make up accomodation reflex?

convergence, pupillary constriction and contraction of ciliary muscle

25

What does contraction of the ciliary muscle cause?

decreases tension on zonule fibres

26

When do we use accommodation?

looking at something up close

27

Which ocular muscles does the third nerve NOT control?

lateral rectus
superior oblique

28

Aneurysm in which nerve leaves the third nerve vulnerable?

posterior communicating artery

29

Where does CNIX arise from?

the dorsal aspect of the brainstem

30

How does CNIX enter the eye?

via the superior orbital fissure

31

Where does CNX arise from?

3 nuclei in midbrain and medulla

32

Which nerve supplies afferent arm of corneal reflex?

trigeminal

33

Which nerve supplies motor innervation to lateral rectus?

CNXI (abducens)

34

When can abducens nerve palsy occur?

Raised ICP

35

Where does CNXI arise

its nucleus in the pons

36

What arises from the common tendinous ring?

the rectus muscles

37

Why does optic neuritis cause pain on eye movements?

optic nerve sheath is attached to the common tendinous ring

38

Where are cones found in higher density?

over the fovea

39

What supplies blood to the outer layers of the retina?

choroid

40

Describe the venous drainage of the eye

the superior opthalmic vein leaves the eye via the superior orbital fissure and the vein then drains into the cavernous sinus

41

Which wall of the orbit is most vulnerable to blunt trauma?

inferior wall

42

Which structures pass through the supraorbital notch?

supraorbital nerve and vessels