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Flashcards in Hindbrain Deck (21):
0

Hindbrain and midbrain make up the?

brainstem

1

Which surface of the brainstem has the cranial nerves, pons and medulla (raphe, ventrolateral medulla) visible?

Ventral

2

The dorsal surface of the brainstem contains what 6 things?

-TRIGEMINAL system (processes sensory input from face)
-Parts of vestibular system
-Pyramidal dessucation
- GRACILE nucleus
-Inferior + superior colliculi
-Cerebellar peduncles

3

Are sensory nuclei in brainstem located more laterally or medically?

Laterally

4

What is the role of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus?

Parasympathetic input to eye ---> pupil constriction

5

What input does the solitary nucleus receive?

SENSORY afferent input from FACIAL (VII), GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL (IX), and VAGUS (X).

(Taste! Facial and glosso)

6

Which brainstem nucleus receives motor info from cranial nerves IX and X?

Ambiguus

(Glosso. and vagus - throat muscles)

7

Axons of the salivatory nucleus are parasympathetic or sympathetic?

And go via which cranial nerves?

Parasympathetic

Facial and GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL

8

Where do 90% of corticospinal fibres cross midline?

Pyramidal decussation
(Caudal medulla)

9

Which medullary pathology is caused by thrombosis of vertebral artery?

Wallenberg's syndrome

10

What are the symptoms of Wallenberg's syndrome?

1) contralateral pain/temp loss (spinothalamic)
2) ipsilatetal pain/temp loss in face (trigeminal)
3) vertigo/nystagmus (vestibular nuc)
4) ipsilatetal loss of taste (solitary nuc)
5) dysphagia (difficulty swallowing - amiguus)

11

Why is a brainstem glioma?

Tumour in brainstem

12

From where do reticular nuclei extend?

Medulla --> pons --> midbrain

13

Roles of reticular formation? (x3)

1) Ascending fibres control arousal - sleep, wakefulness, attention
2) Descending fibres form RETICULO-SPINAL tract - posture + postural reflexes
3) helps control HR + respiration

14

Pallidus, obscurus and Magnus are examples of what?

Where are they located?

Raphe nuclei

P + O - medulla
M - pons(caudal)

15

What NT do raphe nuclei contain?

5-HT

16

Where do raphe nuclei in medulla and caudal pons project to?

What do they control?

Spinal cord

Modulate pain, movement and autonomic control

17

Where do raphe nuclei in rostral pons and midbrain project to?

What do they control?

Forebrain

Mood, sleep-wake cycles

18

Which raphe nuclei has a key role alongside the Periaqueductal grey in the descending pain pathway?

Magnus

19

What is the monoamine hypothesis regarding depression?

Under activity of monoamines especially 5-HT

20

Tricyclics, MAO inhibitors and SSRIs re treatments for depression, how do they work?

Tricyclics - block 5-HT reuptake

MAO inhibitors - inhibit 5-HT breakdown

SSRIs - 5-HT agonists