Flashcards in Hindbrain Deck (21):
Hindbrain and midbrain make up the?
Which surface of the brainstem has the cranial nerves, pons and medulla (raphe, ventrolateral medulla) visible?
The dorsal surface of the brainstem contains what 6 things?
-TRIGEMINAL system (processes sensory input from face)
-Parts of vestibular system
- GRACILE nucleus
-Inferior + superior colliculi
Are sensory nuclei in brainstem located more laterally or medically?
What is the role of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
Parasympathetic input to eye ---> pupil constriction
What input does the solitary nucleus receive?
SENSORY afferent input from FACIAL (VII), GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL (IX), and VAGUS (X).
(Taste! Facial and glosso)
Which brainstem nucleus receives motor info from cranial nerves IX and X?
(Glosso. and vagus - throat muscles)
Axons of the salivatory nucleus are parasympathetic or sympathetic?
And go via which cranial nerves?
Facial and GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
Where do 90% of corticospinal fibres cross midline?
Which medullary pathology is caused by thrombosis of vertebral artery?
What are the symptoms of Wallenberg's syndrome?
1) contralateral pain/temp loss (spinothalamic)
2) ipsilatetal pain/temp loss in face (trigeminal)
3) vertigo/nystagmus (vestibular nuc)
4) ipsilatetal loss of taste (solitary nuc)
5) dysphagia (difficulty swallowing - amiguus)
Why is a brainstem glioma?
Tumour in brainstem
From where do reticular nuclei extend?
Medulla --> pons --> midbrain
Roles of reticular formation? (x3)
1) Ascending fibres control arousal - sleep, wakefulness, attention
2) Descending fibres form RETICULO-SPINAL tract - posture + postural reflexes
3) helps control HR + respiration
Pallidus, obscurus and Magnus are examples of what?
Where are they located?
P + O - medulla
M - pons(caudal)
What NT do raphe nuclei contain?
Where do raphe nuclei in medulla and caudal pons project to?
What do they control?
Modulate pain, movement and autonomic control
Where do raphe nuclei in rostral pons and midbrain project to?
What do they control?
Mood, sleep-wake cycles
Which raphe nuclei has a key role alongside the Periaqueductal grey in the descending pain pathway?
What is the monoamine hypothesis regarding depression?
Under activity of monoamines especially 5-HT