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Flashcards in Hip & Thigh Deck (27):

Outline the history of hip pain.

Location: groin, buttock
- ant. = femoral nerve
- pos. = sciatic nerve
- lat. = superior gluteal nerve
- "inside" = obturator nerve

- rest = biological pain
- exercise = mechanical pain

- acute/traumatic
- gradual/degenerative

Night pain


Outline the history of hip stiffness.

Start-up stiffness = occurs in morning/after period of rest but improves after beginning activity

Difficulty reaching foot (thigh flexion req. - differentiate from knee stiffness)

Getting in/out of car/bath


Outline the red flags of hip pain.

Severe night pain
Inability to bear weight
Hx of malignancy
Rapid deterioration of symptoms


Outline the examination of the hip.

LOOK: wasting, alignment and orientation, scars, limb length, gait

- tenderness: greater trochanter, areas of hip
- pulses: pos. tibial, dorsalis pedis

- flexion/extension
- abduction/adduction
- external/internal rotation

Special tests:
- psoas snapping
- ITB snapping
- hip impingement


Describe the features of different types of gait.

Antalgic = short stance phase on affected side, lurch of trunk towards affected side

Trendelenburg = pelvis on opposite side drops, trunk lurches towards affected side

Short leg = up on long leg, down on short leg

Fixed flexion = hyperextended lumbr spine so bum sticks out, positive Thomas test


Outline the special tests of the hip.

Psoas snapping = patient lies on unaffected side with pad under buttock so affected hip is held in adduction, knee flexed whilst hip actively flexed and extended ----> iliotibial band flicking over rgeater trochanter in snapping hip syndrome

ITB snapping = patient lies on unaffected side with hip and knee flexed at 90 degrees, examiner puts knees at 5 degrees flexion and fully abducts limb ---> tight ITB causes leg to remain abducted and patient experiences lat. knee pain

Hip impingement = flex hip and internally rotate ---> recreates hip pain when the labrum of the acetabulum is impinged by osteophytes of the femoral head/acetabulum


What are the examination features of hip fracture?

Hx of trauma
Severe pain
Inability to weight bear


What are the examination features of hip OA?

Gradual onset and progression
Pain/stiffness/lack of function
Other features of OA e.g. Heberden's nodes
X-ray features e.g. subchondral cysts, reduced joint space, osteophytes, sclerosis


What is trochanteric bursitis?

Minor tears in surrounding muscles or fascia OR inflamed bursa causes pain in other thigh and hip

Differentials: degeneration, tendinitis, referred back pain


What is femoral acetabular impingement?

Osteophytes developing around femoral head/acetabulum cause tearing of labrum so labrum becomes trapped under acetabulum

Pain with flexion, adduction, and internal rotation


What are the features of hip infection?

S&S = severe pain, systemic sepsis, very stiff and unable to bear weight

Ix = normal X-ray, USS shows fluid, increased CRP and WCCs, increased temp.

Young = confused with growing pains or transient synovitis

Risk of destroying cartilage

Urgent decompression and washout req.


What are the features of developmental hip dysplasia?

Shallow acetabulum prevents femoral head from firmly fitting acetabulum +/- stretched ligaments

Causes hip instability

Screened for using Barlow's and Ortolani's tests

Diagnosed at birth ---> put in Pavlik harness to hold hips in abduction and flexion for 12wks


What is Barlow's test?

Adduction and depression of femur dislocates hip in developmental hip dysplasia


What is Ortolani's test?

Elevation and abduction of femur relocates a dislocated hip


What is Perthes' disease?

Avascular necrosis of growing bone compreses living cartilage, causing osteochondritis of proximal femoral epiphysis causing osteonecrosis of femoral head


What is slipped upper femoral epiphysis?

Fracture in growth plate of upper femoral epiphysis

Femoral epiphysis slips, head remains in acetabulum but neck displaces anteriorly and externally rotates


What lines of on an X-ray can hint at a hip or pelvic fracture?

Line through centre of femoral heads (cutting through greater trochanters) should be equal on both sides

Line through ischial tuberosities (cutting through lesser trochanters) should be equal on both sides

Shenton's line: medial edge of femoral neck curving into superior pubic ramus

Iliopectineal line

Ilioischial line


What are the margins of the capsule of the femur?

Ant. = intertrochanteric line

Pos. = 1 finger superomedial to intertrochanteric crest


What is the management of an undisplaced intracapsular neck of femur fracture in a young fit patient?

Attempt to fix with dynamic hip screw

30% change of avascular necrosis ---> screw slides out of end of barrel ---> total hip replacement indicated


What is the management of an intracapsular neck of femur fracture in an old patient not fit for multiple operations?

Total hip replacement IF:

- able to mobilise independently with no aids other thn stick
- no cognitive impairment
- fit for anaesthesia and surgical procedure


What are the complications of a total hip replacement?

Will fail eventually (depends on activity and weight)




What are the signs of a NOF fracture and why?

Externally rotated, adducted, shortened leg

Iliopsoas (usually flexes, adducts, and internally rotates hip) axis of rotation changed by fracture ---> externally rotates


What is the management of an extracapsular fracture in a young patient?

Extramedullary fixation

Sliding hip screw


What is the management of an extracapsular fracture in an old patient?

Intramedullary nail OR hip replacement


What are the complications of hip fixation?

- fibrous noun-union (failure to achieve adequate mechanical stabilisation so screws slide out)
- late avascular necrosis
- acetabular erosion
- dislocaton
- fracture
- infection


What is the management of femoral fractures?

Reduce fracture early
- initally with skin traction e.g. Thomas splint
- internal fixation: intramedullary nail
OR open reduction internal fixation (ORIF)


What is the management of patellar fractures?

Straight leg raise:
- positive = conservative Mx
- negative = ORIF or tension band wire