Describe the boundaries of the gluteal region?
From iliac crest above to gluteal fold below
Describe the trochanters of the femur?
Greater: anterolateral, more prominent
Lesser: posteromedial, less prominent
How are the trochanters of the femur joined?
Trochanteric line anteriorly (rough)
Trochanteric crest posteriorly (smooth)
Describe the features of the shaft of the humerus?
Linea aspera posteriorly > splits into supra-condylar lines
Describe the outer surface of the ilium?
Gives rise to gluteal muscles
Three lines: inferior, anterior and posterior (delineate attachments of gluteal muscles)
What is the significance of the ischeal tuberosity?
Bears weight in sitting position
Attachments for key muscles
Describe the ischeal ramus?
projects forward from ischeal tuberosity
Completes loop of bone when it joins with inferior pubic ramus
Describe the actions of the muscles of the gluteal region?
Extend, rotate and abduct the thigh at the hip joint
Also minmise pelvi tilt during swing phase of locomotion
Where do major flexors of the hip arise from?
Posterior abdominal wall
What creates the muscle compartments in the thigh and leg?
Bone, fascia and interosseous membrane
Which muscle compartments are present in the thigh?
What are their actions?
Anterior: extensor (extend knee, flex hip)
Which muscle compartments are present in the leg?
What are their actions?
Anterior: dorsiflex and extend toes
Posterior: plantarflex foot and flex toes
Lateral: evert foot
What is the fascia lata?
What is its function?
Deep fascia encircling the thigh muscles
Limits outward bulging of muscles and promotes venous return
What is the iliotibial tract?
Thickening in lateral part of fascia lata
Which muscles are related to the iliotibial tract?
Shared aponeurotic tendon of gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata
Describe the actions of tensor fascia lata?
Flexes, abducts and medially rotates
Describe the attachments of the gluteus maximus?
From gluteal surface of ilium, posterior to the posterior gluteal line and dorsum of sacrum
(from back of sacrum and adjacent part of ilium)
Inserts into iliotibial tract, with some deep fibres passing into the gluteal tuberosity
Describe the actions of the gluteus maximus?
Extension and lateral rotation
(standing up from sitting, bending over, walking up stairs)
Describe the muscles that lie posteriorly to the hip joint, below gluteus maximus?
Describe the structure and insertions of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus?
Insert into lesser trochanter
Describe the functions of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus?
Function in locomotion
Describe the structure and pathway of piriformis?
What is the significance of this muscle?
Arises within pelvis from anterior sacrum > exits pelvis through sciatic notch and inserts into gluteal region
Key to organising neurovascular structures in lower limb
Where does obturator internus arise from?
Lateral wall of pelvis
Which larger muscle are the gemelli associated with/helpers of?
Which landmarks lie either side of quadratus femoris?
Ischeal tuberosity to medial side
Greater trochanter to lateral side
List the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh?
Vastus intermedius (deep)
Which muscle organises the anterior compartment of the thigh?
Hip flexors lie above it
Quadriceps lie below it
Describe the functions of iliopsoas?
Flexes trunk on thigh
Lifts thigh at hip
Important postural muscle during standing - maintains lumbar lordosis
Describe the actions of pectineus?
Flexion at hip
Adduction at hip
Transition between anterior extensor compartment and medial adductor compartment
Describe the action of sartorius?
Mainly a synergist
Describe the actions of the quadriceps muscles?
Rising from sitting, walking up stairs
Describe the insertion of the quadriceps muscles?
Four components > quadrcieps tendon > patellar ligament > inserts into tibial tuberosity
Describe the vastus intermedius?
Deep component of quadriceps muscles
Anterior surface has aponeurosis over top > blends with quadriceps tendon
List the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?
How are the adductor muscles arranged in relation to each other?
Superficial to deep: longus, brevis, magnus
Which is the deepest muscle of the medial compartment of the thigh?
Which muscle of the medial compartment of the thigh is very extensive?
Describe its insertion?
Inserts along whole of linea aspera, right down to adductor tubercle
List the muscles present in the posterior compartment of the thigh?
Biceps femoris (long and short head)
How does the biceps femoris differ from the other quadriceps muscles?
Origin on hip bone
Crosses knee and hip joint > knee extension and hip flexion
Also has two heads
How does gracilis differ from the other muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?
Crosses both hip and knee joint (inserts into proximal tibia)
What is the adductor hiatus?
Gap in adductor magnus
Gap in its insertion between linea aspera/supracondylar ridge and adductor tubercle
Passage for main vessels of lower limb
Describe the origin of the hamstring muscles?
Superificial three: ischeal tuberosity
Short head of biceps: shaft of femur
Describe the actions of the hamstring muscles?
Hip extensors (not short head of biceps)
Describe the arrangement of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?
Semitendinosus (overlies semimebranosus)
Biceps femoris long head (superifical)
Biceps femoris short head (deep)
How does the semitendinosus differ from the semimembranosus?
Semitendinosus is more superficial
Has more tendon (belly stops earlier)
Describe the insertions of the hamstring muscles?
Biceps femoris: fibula (lateral)
Semimembranosus: posterior of medial condyle of tibia
Semitendinosus: pes anserinus (proximal tibia)
Describe the pes anserinus?
Common insertion of three muscles, one from each compartment of thigh
(SAY GRACE BEFORE TEA)