Hip and thigh: bones and muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hip and thigh: bones and muscles Deck (47):
1

Describe the boundaries of the gluteal region?

From iliac crest above to gluteal fold below 

2

Describe the trochanters of the femur?

Greater: anterolateral, more prominent

Lesser: posteromedial, less prominent

3

How are the trochanters of the femur joined?

Trochanteric line anteriorly (rough)

Trochanteric crest posteriorly (smooth)

4

Describe the features of the shaft of the humerus?

Smooth anteriorly

Linea aspera posteriorly > splits into supra-condylar lines 

5

Describe the outer surface of the ilium?

Gluteal surface 

Gives rise to gluteal muscles 

Three lines: inferior, anterior and posterior (delineate attachments of gluteal muscles)

6

What is the significance of the ischeal tuberosity?

Bears weight in sitting position

Attachments for key muscles

7

Describe the ischeal ramus?

projects forward from ischeal tuberosity

Completes loop of bone when it joins with inferior pubic ramus 

8

Describe the actions of the muscles of the gluteal region?

Extend, rotate and abduct the thigh at the hip joint 

Also minmise pelvi tilt during swing phase of locomotion 

9

Where do major flexors of the hip arise from?

Posterior abdominal wall 

10

What creates the muscle compartments in the thigh and leg?

Bone, fascia and interosseous membrane 

11

Which muscle compartments are present in the thigh?

What are their actions?

Medial: adductor

Anterior: extensor (extend knee, flex hip)

Posterior: flexor 

12

Which muscle compartments are present in the leg?

What are their actions?

Anterior: dorsiflex and extend toes

Posterior: plantarflex foot and flex toes

Lateral: evert foot

13

What is the fascia lata?

What is its function?

Deep fascia encircling the thigh muscles

Limits outward bulging of muscles and promotes venous return 

14

What is the iliotibial tract?

Thickening in lateral part of fascia lata

15

Which muscles are related to the iliotibial tract?

Shared aponeurotic tendon of gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata

16

Describe the actions of tensor fascia lata?

Flexes, abducts and medially rotates 

 

17

Describe the attachments of the gluteus maximus?

From gluteal surface of ilium, posterior to the posterior gluteal line and dorsum of sacrum 

(from back of sacrum and adjacent part of ilium)

Inserts into iliotibial tract, with some deep fibres passing into the gluteal tuberosity

18

Describe the actions of the gluteus maximus?

Extension and lateral rotation 

(standing up from sitting, bending over, walking up stairs)

19

Describe the muscles that lie posteriorly to the hip joint, below gluteus maximus?

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Piriformis

Gemellus superior

Obturator internus

Gemellus inferior

Quadratus femoris

 

 

20

Describe the structure and insertions of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus?

Fan shaped

Insert into lesser trochanter

 

21

Describe the functions of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus?

Abduct hip

Medially rotate

Function in locomotion

22

Describe the structure and pathway of piriformis?

What is the significance of this muscle?

Triangular

Arises within pelvis from anterior sacrum > exits pelvis through sciatic notch and inserts into gluteal region

Key to organising neurovascular structures in lower limb 

23

Where does obturator internus arise from?

Lateral wall of pelvis

24

Which larger muscle are the gemelli associated with/helpers of?

Obturator internus 

25

Which landmarks lie either side of quadratus femoris?

Ischeal tuberosity to medial side

Greater trochanter to lateral side 

26

List the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Iliopsoas

Pectineus

Sartorius

Rectus femoris

Vastus lateralis

Vastus intermedius (deep)

Vastus medialis

27

Which muscle organises the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Sartorius

Hip flexors lie above it

Quadriceps lie below it

28

Describe the functions of iliopsoas?

Flexes trunk on thigh

Lifts thigh at hip

Important postural muscle during standing - maintains lumbar lordosis

29

Describe the actions of pectineus?

Explain?

 

Flexion at hip 

Adduction at hip

Transition between anterior extensor compartment and medial adductor compartment

30

Describe the action of sartorius?

Sitting cross-legged

Mainly a synergist

31

Describe the actions of the quadriceps muscles?

Extend knee

Rising from sitting, walking up stairs

32

Describe the insertion of the quadriceps muscles?

Four components > quadrcieps tendon > patellar ligament > inserts into tibial tuberosity 

33

Describe the vastus intermedius?

Deep component of quadriceps muscles 

Anterior surface has aponeurosis over top > blends with quadriceps tendon 

34

List the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Gracillis

Adductor longus

Adductor brevis

Adductor magnus 

35

How are the adductor muscles arranged in relation to each other?

Superficial to deep: longus, brevis, magnus

36

Which is the deepest muscle of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Adducotr magnus

 

37

Which muscle of the medial compartment of the thigh is very extensive?

Describe its insertion?

Adductor magnus

Inserts along whole of linea aspera, right down to adductor tubercle 

38

List the muscles present in the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Biceps femoris (long and short head)

39

How does the biceps femoris differ from the other quadriceps muscles?

Origin on hip bone

Crosses knee and hip joint > knee extension and hip flexion 

Also has two heads 

40

How does gracilis differ from the other muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Crosses both hip and knee joint (inserts into proximal tibia)

41

What is the adductor hiatus?

Gap in adductor magnus

Gap in its insertion between linea aspera/supracondylar ridge and adductor tubercle

Passage for main vessels of lower limb 

42

Describe the origin of the hamstring muscles?

Superificial three: ischeal tuberosity 

Short head of biceps: shaft of femur 

43

Describe the actions of the hamstring muscles?

Hip extensors (not short head of biceps)

Knee flexors 

44

Describe the arrangement of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?

MEDIAL

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus (overlies semimebranosus)

LATERAL

Biceps femoris long head (superifical)

Biceps femoris short head (deep)

45

How does the semitendinosus differ from the semimembranosus?

Semitendinosus is more superficial

Has more tendon (belly stops earlier) 

46

Describe the insertions of the hamstring muscles?

Biceps femoris: fibula (lateral)

Semimembranosus: posterior of medial condyle of tibia

Semitendinosus: pes anserinus (proximal tibia)

47

Describe the pes anserinus?

Common insertion of three muscles, one from each compartment of thigh

Sartorius

Gracilis

(bursa)

Semintendinosus

(SAY GRACE BEFORE TEA)