Flashcards in Hip, Knee & Ankle Joints Review Questions Deck (32):
While extending the knee during a closed chained/kinetic exercise, in the last few degrees of extension what will rotate and in which direction will it screw home?
The femurs will rotate internally during the last few degrees of extension
Which of the quadriceps muscle(s) is emphasized when the last ten to fifteen degrees of extension is performed?
VMO Vastus Medialis Oblique
The patella is what kind of bone?
Flat bone or short bone; either one will work.
What are the primary functions of the patella?
If a quarterback is hit directly in the patella from the front while his foot is planted and his knee is extended, then which ligament is most likely to be damaged? Why?
His Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
It limits Hyperextension and when the quarterback is hit at the patella, the patella is riding on the distal end of the femur; so the force of the hit is at the distal end of the femur and if his foot is planted firmly there will be Anterior Translation of the tibia (hyperextention) thus injuring the ACL.
While extending the knee in an open chained/kinetic exercise, in the last few degrees of extension what will rotate and in which direction?
The tibia will rotate externally during the last few degrees of extension.
What motions cause PCL injuries?
Hyperflexion and if hit with a great enough force hyperextention as well. Car accidents where hit from the front can cause PCL injuries due to hyperflexion.
What is the muscle that serves to "unlock" the extended knee? Origin and insertion?
O: Post. aspect of the Lateral Femoral condyle.
I: Sup. Post. Medial surface of Tibia.
How does one measure Q angle?
Proximal ray ASIS to Middle of Patella, Distal ray Middle Patella to Tibial Tuberosity.
Define Q angle
Quadriceps angle. Angle formed between the line of pull of the quadriceps group and the line of pull of the patellar ligament.
What injuries/ailment(s) are associated with excessive Q angle?
ACL tears, pronation issues in foot, MCL issues, patellar tracking issues
In order to optimize hip flexor work, the pelvis should be in a(n) ______ tilt. Because of lumbar-pelvic rhythm, the lumbar vertebrae will be _______.
Anterior, extended(lordosis position)
Identify the two most important hip flexors, is there one more?
Iliopsoas, Rectus Femoris. Yes sartorius - large amount of leverage.
What direction of tilt does the pelvis have to be in order to emphasize the abdominal muscles?
Posterior tilt of the pelvis
Why is it that the rectus femurs makes a greater contribution, in terms of initial hip flexion, to sprinting than to punting a football? Would this also be true while climbing stairs?
When initiating the sprint, the rectus femurs flexes hip only. During the punt it flexes the hip and extends the knee. The lengths are different in these two motions and the RF is only worrying about the hip during the sprint.
What direction of tilt does the pelvis hat to be in in order to emphasize the hip flexors?
Anterior tilt of the pelvis
I'm a fan-shaped muscle, and I look like a bubble on sprinters, and you can hardly find me on a cross-country runner...who am I/ When must I work the hardest?
I am the Gluteus Maximus. I work hardest during extension of the hip. Cross country runners don't extend their hips like sprinters need too.
Coxofemoral abduction is my most important job...who might I be? If you were to horizontally abduct the joint, the I lose some of my importance and the emphasis shifts towards the ________?
I am the Gluteus Medius. TFL.
Posterior tilt of pelvis emphasizes which muscle group?
I am best stretched doin' the frog, although most coaches still rely on the butterfly. Who are we? Name us all.
Adductor Group: adductor brevis, longus, magnus, gracilis, and pectineus
Often, when the hip is flexed and the knee is extended, I am stretched to my limit...In fact, I will manifest passive insufficiency. From medial to lateral, identify my three parts? IF the knee were injured and could not be flexed, how would you work me out?
Hamstring group: Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, and Biceps Femoris. ??still need to finish this answer??
Anterior tilt of the pelvis emphasizes which muscle group?
Hip flexor muscles
Often, the "fire hydrant" exercise is performed in rehab situations and in aerobics classes purportedly to target the gluteus medius...is this really accurate...why or why not??
Yes and no, the emphasis shift to the TFL because this is a horizontal abduction motion. This is also a good dynamic stretch for the adductors.
The three most common sites for osteoporotic fractures are the distal radius, bides of lumbar vertebrae 4 & 5, an the hip. Technically however, it is not the hip because the hip is a joint...you can't fracture a joint. Specifically, where does the fracture occur?
Femoral neck, shear force causes this
Which muscle acts "like" a fourth hamstring muscle when a person squats?
ADDuctor magnus, only at the hip (not at the knee)
What is a "hip pointer"?
A contusion on the pelvis caused by a direct blow or a fall at an iliac crest and/or hip bone, "Bruised"
Identify three exercises, other than the squat that can effectively challenge the gluteus maximus
Lunges, bench stepping, glut ham raise, dead lift, butt blasters romainin dead lift
What does the sit and reach test tell us about flexibility?
Flexibility test for the hamstring and lower back muscles. Hormones determine flexibility
What is lumbar-pelvic rhythm?
Lumbar vertebrae cannot move unless the pelvis moves, visa versa.
Which muscles, serving to externally rotate the hip, kinda function like the hips rotator cuff?
"Deep six", piriformis, gemellus sup/inf, obturator int/ext, quadratus femoris
How is a bulgarian split squat performed? Really, it's much like what other exercise?
I know this, Looks like a lung (not hirer than 4-8in)