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Flashcards in HIS 1-3 Deck (67):
1

Haematology

Branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood

2

Haematopoiesis

The formation of blood cellular components.

3

While in the womb, where does Hematopoiesis occur?

Spleen and liver

4

Where does haematopoisis occur after birth?

bone marrow: vertebrae, ribs, sternum, skull, sacrum, pelvis, and proximal femur

5

Angio

Angio: refers to vessels, both arteries and veins, lymphatic, and exocrine glands/ducts.

6

What % of our body weight does blood account for?

7-8%

7

What are the functions of blood?

Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to our cells and eliminates carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other waste products. It plays a vital role in our immune system and in maintaining a relatively constant body temperature. Its most important components are red cells, white cells, platelets, and plasma.

8

Plasma

Plasma: Clear solution containing proteins, salts.

9

Serum

Serum: The clear fluid remaining after clotting, so without fibrinogen.

10

How many Erythrocytes are produced daily and what is their lifespan?

2.5 billion, 120 days

11

How many leukocytes are produced daily and what is their lifespan?

2 billion, hours to days

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How many platelets are produced daily?

2.5 billion

13

Platelets are broken pieces of...

megakaryocytes

14

Red pulp

The red pulp in the spleen removes old blood cells when they are less efficient at carrying oxygen because the RBCs become rigid and can not squeeze through the spleen’s narrow channels. It also recycles iron and holds an extra blood supply.

15

White pulp

White pulp synthesizes antibodies and has immune function. A stabbing in the spleen would be deadly because it is vascular.

16

Primary lymphoid organs

Primary lymphoid organs are bone marrow and thymus.

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Secondary lymphoid organs

Secondary lymphoid organs are lymph nodes, spleen, and MALT

18

MALT

MALT: The mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue is a diffuse system of small concentrations of lymphoid tissue found in various mucosal sites of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin.

19

Thymus, location, parts and function

Thymus: located behind sternum, anterior to heart. Where T-cells mature, developing cellular recognition (B-cells mature in marrow). It is active in youth and then begins to atrophy. T-cells move from the medula (outer) to cortex (inner) and are examined by the thalmus to ensure that the T-cells can perform cellular recognition.

20

Lymph, what is it, where does it come from, and where does it go?

Lymph: Tissue fluid leaks out of the capillaries/blood vessels and into the interstitial fluid where it picks up undesirable materials. This interstitial fluid drains into lymphatic capillaries where it becomes lymph. It is comparable to plasma but has WBCs. It enters lymphatic channels, passing through lymph nodes where it is filtered. It then drains into veinous system.

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Superficial lymphatic travels with...

veins

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Deep lymphatic travel with...

arteries

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Lymph nodes, parts and function

Lymph nodes: Lymph flows in to node, is scrutinized by B-cells in the outer cortex, then by T-cells in the paracortex (more inner) zone, then assessed by plasma antibodies in the medulla.

24

Lymph node outer cortex

B-Cells

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Lymph node paracortex

T-Cells

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Lymph node medulla

antibodies

27

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is cancer of the lymph nodes.

28

What percentage of body weight is water?

60% males, 50% women

29

What % of body weight is ICF, ECF, plasma, interstitial?

ICF = 40%
ECF = 20%
-Plasma = 5%
-Interstitial = 15%

30

What are the main solutes in ECF?

Na+, CL-, CO3-

31

What are the main solutes in ICF?

K+, PO4-, proteins

32

Sodium Potassium pump, what goes in, what goes out?

NA/K pump: 3 Na out of cell with dephosphorylation of ATP and 2 K inside cell, releasing phosphate.

33

Osmotic pressure

Osmotic Pressure: is the measure of a tendency for water to move towards a lower solute concentration.

34

Osmole

Osmole (osm): is equal to 1 mole of solute particles.

35

How many osmoles if 1 mole of K2PO4 is placed in 1 liter of water?

3

36

What is the osmolarity of body fluids?

The osmolarity of boddy fluids is 283 +/- 11 mili osmolarity

37

How does Diabetes insidious effect osmolarity and tonicity?

Diabetes insipidus reduces ADH, so urine is high in volume and dilution. =>dehydration

38

What is tonicity?

In the human body, tonicity is the ability of the solution on one side of the cell membrane to attract water from the solution on the other side of the membrane.

39

What is osmosis in regards to tonicity?

Movement of water through the membrane from a solution with lower tonicity to a solution with higher tonicity

40

hypertonic, in regards to Na concentration

excessive Na concentration pulls water into ECF-cell shrinks

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hypotonic, in regards to Na concentration

Deficient Na concentration pulls water into ICF-cell grows

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edema

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial fluid.

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Intravenous: colloid

hypertonic solution to reduce edema.

44

Intravenous: Crystalloid, 3 types

Isotonic solution or,
Hypotonic solution: very little NaCl to increase ICF osmotic pressure.
Hypertonic: varying (but more) NaCl concentrations to increase plasma fluid, correct over hydration.

45

Albumin

Main protein of human blood plasma, synthesized in liver. It binds and transports water, cations (such as Ca2+, Na+ and K+), lipids, including fatty acids, hormones, and pharmaceuticals through the blood. It also acts as a buffer and is critical in regulating the osmotic pressure of blood. Hypoalbuminaemia = edema.

46

Fibrinogen

Glycoprotein in vertebrates that helps in the formation of blood clots.

47

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin

Inhibits a wide variety of proteases. It protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells. In its absence (such as in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency), neutrophil elastase is free to break down elastin, which contributes to the elasticity of the lungs, resulting in respiratory complications such as emphysema, or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in adults and cirrhosis in adults or children.

48

Elastase

Elastase breaks down elastin, an elastic fibre that, together with collagen, determines the mechanical properties of connective tissue.

49

elastin

Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. Elastin is also an important load-bearing tissue in the bodies of vertebrates and used in places where mechanical energy is required to be stored.

50

Why are platelets not considered cells?

Do not have nucleus, do not self replicate

51

Where are most plasma proteins synthesized and what is the exception?

Liver; immunoglobulins

52

How are blood proteins analyzed in the lab?

Electrophoresis, separated by their charge or size in agarose gel.

53

What is a biological marker?

A substance that is usually a protein in plasma or urine that can be used, when compared to a healthy person, to identify pathology or therapeutic response.

54

ELISA

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Lab method used to determine the density of proteins in plasma by color variance.

55

Where is albumin produced, how much, what is the half life, and what is the normal level?

liver, 12g, 20 days, 3.5g/dL

56

Hypoalbuminemia

Low levels of albumin in blood can leads to fluid retention in the tissues (edema). Because albumin carries Ca through blood, hypoalbuminaemia can also cause muscle weakness.

Albumin is a source amino acids, and in malnutrition is used as an energy source. Can also be caused by liver failure, Malabsorption, nephrotic syndrome (lost through kidneys).

57

What is the molecular taxi?

Albumin, found in plasma

58

alpha-1 globulins (glycoproteins):

Synthesized in liver. High levels are marker of inflammation, as it carries carbohydrates to sites of tissue injury, or malignancy. Low levels indicate malnutrition, nephrotic or hepatic disease.

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hepatoglobulin (an alpha-2 globulin):

Synthesized in liver. Binds free floating plasma hemoglobin released by hemolysis and recycles it in the spleen. A decreased level may indicate hemolytic anemia or liver damage.

60

alpha-1 antitrypsin (alpha-1 globulin):

Synthesized in liver. Inhibits elastase, an enzyme released by inflammatory cell. Without alpha-1 antitrypsin elastase can break down elastic in the lungs, causing respiratory issues such as COPD and emphysema. Smoke can oxidize (destroy alpha-1 antitrypsin).

Deficiency can be hereditary.

61

CRP (a beta-globulin)

C-reactive protein increases greatly in the event of inflammation. It is used to detect acute infection. Its role is activation of the compliment system.

62

Acute Phase Response:

Acute-phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. Includes all of the above.

63

Immunoglobulin

(antibodies). The only plasma proteins not synthesized in liver. Synthesized by B-lymphocytes in response to recognition of non-self proteins. They recognize and bind to immunogens. While they all have the common Y structure, they have unique recognition.

64

immunogen

antigen

65

Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen is a main clotting protein; a large polypeptide (6 chains) synthesized in liver, with positively and negatively charged regions.

66

Thrombin

Coagulation factor 2, a plasma protein that hydrolyzes fibrinogen chains, making fibrin monomers, which then spontaneously align + charges to -, making a insoluble clot.

67

Endothelium

Endothelium is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells.