Flashcards in Histo: Respiratory System Deck (81)
How is elastic fiber concentration related to diameter?
Which way do elastic fibers in the lamina propria run? What about elastic fibers in smooth muscle?
Two functions of the respiratory system
1. provides conduit to transfer air
2. conditions the air (cleans, moistens, warms)
Most predominate respiratory epithelium. Continues until respiratory portion.
Ciliated columnar cells
This cell type has mainly serous secretion
These cells synthesize mucinogen, and hydrate it to turn it into mucous. They trap and remove bacteria and particles, and continue until terminal bronchiole.
Mucous goblet cells
This cell type has no cilia, but many microvilli
Two types of brush cells
1. one acts like a goblet cell and releases mucinogen
2. one has nerve endings on basal surface
This cell may be responsible for the sneeze reflex
These cells are thought to control mucous and seromucous secretion. May control vessel diameter.
Small granule cells
These cells rest on the basement membrane and do not reach the lumen. In this way, they are considered pseudostratified. They are stem cells!
Basal cells or immature cells
abnormal transformation of adult cells in a tissue
to a form which is not normal for that tissue. This
can be in response to a disease process, a physical,
or chemical event
2 changes in respiratory epithelium of a smoker
1. increase in goblet cells due to pollutants
2. decrease in cilia due to CO2
Anterior portion of the nasal cavity
2 types of mucosa in the nasal cavity
Venous plexus in lamina propria that enlarge alternately on two sides of nasal cavity (about every 30 minutes) giving mucosa on occluded side time to recover from desiccation and help to direct air to the olfactory epithelium
What 2 things do plasma cells release in the lamina propria?
IgA and IgE
Discuss what happens with IgE
IgE binds to its receptors on mast cells and basophils, and causes the release of inflammation mediators of the mast cells and basophils
T/F: Nasal cavity provides a site for drug delivery since there is a convenient access to a superficial venous plexus beneath the nasal cavity mucosa
Where are olfactory epithelium located?
On the roof of the nasal cavity and on the superior nasal conchae
bipolar neurons whose apical surfaces are modified to form the olfactory vesicle and olfactory cilia
These cells are stem cells for ALL olfactory epithelium
Where are Bowman's glands located? What is significant that occurs in these glands?
Located in the lamina propria; synthesis of an odorant binding protein (ODP)
Why is serous secretion important in Bowman's glands?
Dissolves odors and cleans the surface
Air spaces within cranial bone lined with respiratory epithelium
What are the cartilagenous plates of the larynx made up of?
Elastic (smaller) and hyaline (larger) cartilage
This structure connects the trachea with the pharynx
Two functions of the larynx
- responsible for phonation (producing sounds) via the vocal cords
- prevents entry of food and fluids into the respiratory system
Do false vocal cords have glands and/or muscle?
They have glands and NO muscle