Flashcards in Histology of Blood Cells Deck (75):
If you see a lobed nucleus, it must be a ______.
What are the categories of white blood cells?
Granulocytes (segmented cells)
What type of cell is large and has a very single prominent nucleus/almost no cytoplasm?
What type of cell is large and has a prominent single nucleus with a moderate amount of cytoplasm?
What type of cell has a 4-lobed nucleus? What larger group does it belong to?
What is the most numerous GRANULOCYTE in normal peripheral blood?
What is the most numerous CELL in the normal peripheral blood?
What kind of tissue is blood?
Slighlty viscous, connective tissue
What is the total blood volume of an average adult?
What are the functions of blood?
1. To maintain the microenvironment of the cells (e.g. pH, ionic content, etc.)
2. Move cells
What are the most common veins for blood draws?
First choice: Median cubital vein
Second choice: Cephalic vein
What results from collecting blood in a tube without anticoagulant?
Coagulated blood results in clumped cells in serum
What results from collecting blood in a tube with anticoagulant?
RBCs will go to bottom of tube (packed red blood cells) after centrifugation
What is a typical hematocrit for women?
What is a typical hematocrit for men?
What is the buffy coat?
~1% of the volume of an anti-coagulant tube of blood of centrifugation. Made up of white blood cells, sits on top of packed RBCs.
Where are the platelets in a centrifuged tube of blood?
Wayyy less than 1% of the total volume, sits on top of the buffy coat.
What is the composition of plasma?
9% protein (albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, plasma lipoproteins, complement)
1% blood electrolytes, glucose, gases, hormones, etc.
What data do you obtain from a CBC (complete blood count)?
1. Hemoglobin (g/dL)
2. % RBCS, morphology, reticulocyte count (
What are reticulocytes?
What scientific tool is used to measure the relative numbers/morphologies of cells in a sample of blood?
In flow cytometry, what does side scatter tell you?
In flow cytometry, what does forward scatter tell you?
Variation in relative _____ or ______ can indicate pathology or disease.
Describe the hierarchy/break down of types of "things" in the blood
What are the 3 types of granulocytes?
What are the 3 types of agranulocytes?
What is the lifespan of an RBC?
What percentage of our peripheral blood is RBCs?
5 million/uL blood
Describe the shape/appearance of
Biconcave disc shape enhances surface area for oxygen binding
Do RBCs have a nucleus?
What are the relative percentages of white blood cells in the blood?
NLMEB (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas)
Basophil (less than 1%)
What are some nicknames for neutrophils?
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil, PMN, Poly
What is the function of neutrophils?
Function as aggressive phagocytes: body's first line of defense
What are immature neutrophils called?
"Band cells" only about 2%, has only 2 lobes of nucleus
How do neutrophils behave?
Less than 1 day in the blood...then move into connective tissue for several days to eat shit
In addition to the blood, where do neutrophils reside?
About 10x as many in the bone marrow
About equal amount in marginated cells.
What is the connective tissue surrounding blood vessels?
What are the steps of WBC extravsation?
2. Activation and adhesion
3. Lateral migration
What are the the 3 mechanisms of diapedesis?
2. Paracellular diapedesis (between endothelial cells)
3. Transcellular (migration through a pore)
Describe the morphology of a neutrophil.
Segmented nucleus (2-6 = normal)
9-12 um in diameter
Barr body (inactivated x chromosome in women)
What are the components/types of granules in neutrophils?
1. Azurophilic (lysosomes)
2. Cell-specific: enzymes and antimicrobial agents
3. Tertiary: gelatinases and collagenases allow migration
How do neutrophils work?
Bind specific bacteria via cell-surface receptors. This binding activates phagocytosis of the foreign agent -> creation of a phagosome.
What do the tertiary granules in neutrophils do?
Digest extracellular matrix and collagen. Chemotaxic migration to target
What do neutrophils secrete?
Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pyrogen (i.e. fever-inducing)
What do specific granules in neutrophils do?
Kill bacteria with enzymes and ROS.
What do azurophilic granules in neutrophils do?
Lysosomal enzymes digest bacteria
What does a dead neutrophil containing its semidigested material turn into?
What is a nickname for eosinophils?
What does eosinophils do? How long do they last?
Respond to allergies and inflammation or parasitic infections.
Circulate less than one day, then spend about 2 weeks in connective tissue.
What is eosinophil morphology?
About 10-14 um in diameter
Segmented (bilobed) nucleus
1. Azurophilic: lysosomes
2. Specific eosinophilic granules (uniform and refractive).
What is a unique feature of eosinophilic granules
Dark center: internum
Lighter region outside: exeternum
What are the components of the eosinophil granule internum?
Basic protein, cationic protein, parasitic neurotoxins, electron-dense crystalloid body
What are the components of the eosinophil granule externum?
Aryl sulfatase, histaminase, acid phosphatase
What is a nickname for basophils?
What do basophils do?
Responsible for vacular disturbances associated with hypersensitivity and anphylaxis; constriction of pulmonary smooth muscle
What effects can basophil granules have on blood vessels?
Decrease in blood volume due to blood vessel leakiness.
Describe basophil morphology.
8-10 um in diameter
Segmented (bilobed) nucleus.
1. Azurophilic: lysosomes
2. Specific: histamine, heparin, eosinophil and neutrophil chemotaxic factors
What type of cell found in connective tissue shares a progenitor cell with the basophil?
Describe monocyte morphology.
12-18 um in diameter
What do monocytes do?
Spend 1-4 days in circulation then differentiate into various phagocytes of the "mononuclear phagocyte system"...garbage collectors of the tissue
What is diapedesis?
The process by which cells move from blood circulation into tissues.
Monocytes tend to be elevated in what type of disease?
Can monocytes act as antigen-presenting cells?
What is the morphology of a lymphocyte?
7-10 um usually but can be up to 18 um
What is unique about lymphocytes?
They can leave and enter circulation multiple times
What do lymphocytes do?
Made in the bone marrow and then become immunocompetent in the thymus. Are pre-programmed to respond to 1-2 antigenic epitopes.
What are stimulated/activated B-cells called?
Can lymphocytes undergo proliferation out in the body?
Yes! They circulate until stimulated/activated by an antigen.
Lymphocytes are part of both the _____ and ___-mediated response systems.
Humoral and cell-mediated
What are platelets?
Nonnucleated cell fragment of the megakaryocyte
What are the parts of a platelet?
Granulomere (center: alpha granules, fibrinogen, PDGF, coag factors)
Hyalomere (periphery: actin and myosin)
Glycocalyx allows recognition
What are the function of the hyalomere in a platelet?
After an endothelium has been healed, the actin and myosin retracts the clot from the former wound.
Also contains cannaliculi (open channels). It serves as a collection of reserve membrane.
What is the function of the granulomere in a platelet?
alpha granules: fibrinogen, PDGF
delta granules: secondary aggregation
lambda granules: lysosomes to break up clot at end