Histology of Blood Cells Flashcards Preview

Cells to Tissues > Histology of Blood Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of Blood Cells Deck (75):
1

If you see a lobed nucleus, it must be a ______.

Granulocyte

2

What are the categories of white blood cells?

Granulocytes (segmented cells)
Agranulocytes

3

What type of cell is large and has a very single prominent nucleus/almost no cytoplasm?

Lymphocyte

4

What type of cell is large and has a prominent single nucleus with a moderate amount of cytoplasm?

Monocyte

5

What type of cell has a 4-lobed nucleus? What larger group does it belong to?

Neutrophil, granulocyte

6

What is the most numerous GRANULOCYTE in normal peripheral blood?

Neutrophil

7

What is the most numerous CELL in the normal peripheral blood?

RBC

8

What kind of tissue is blood?

Slighlty viscous, connective tissue

9

What is the total blood volume of an average adult?

~6 L

10

What are the functions of blood?

1. To maintain the microenvironment of the cells (e.g. pH, ionic content, etc.)

2. Move cells

11

What are the most common veins for blood draws?

First choice: Median cubital vein
Second choice: Cephalic vein

12

What results from collecting blood in a tube without anticoagulant?

Coagulated blood results in clumped cells in serum

13

What results from collecting blood in a tube with anticoagulant?

RBCs will go to bottom of tube (packed red blood cells) after centrifugation

14

What is a typical hematocrit for women?

30-45%

15

What is a typical hematocrit for men?

40-50%

16

What is the buffy coat?

~1% of the volume of an anti-coagulant tube of blood of centrifugation. Made up of white blood cells, sits on top of packed RBCs.

17

Where are the platelets in a centrifuged tube of blood?

Wayyy less than 1% of the total volume, sits on top of the buffy coat.

18

What is the composition of plasma?

90% water
9% protein (albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, plasma lipoproteins, complement)
1% blood electrolytes, glucose, gases, hormones, etc.

19

What data do you obtain from a CBC (complete blood count)?

1. Hemoglobin (g/dL)
2. % RBCS, morphology, reticulocyte count (

20

What are reticulocytes?

Immature RBCs

21

What scientific tool is used to measure the relative numbers/morphologies of cells in a sample of blood?

Flow cytometry

22

In flow cytometry, what does side scatter tell you?

Granularity

23

In flow cytometry, what does forward scatter tell you?

Size

24

Variation in relative _____ or ______ can indicate pathology or disease.

proportions, morphology

25

Describe the hierarchy/break down of types of "things" in the blood

Add pic

26

What are the 3 types of granulocytes?

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

27

What are the 3 types of agranulocytes?

Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Stem cells

28

What is the lifespan of an RBC?

~120 days

29

What percentage of our peripheral blood is RBCs?

99%

5 million/uL blood

30

Describe the shape/appearance of

Biconcave disc shape enhances surface area for oxygen binding

31

Do RBCs have a nucleus?

No!!

32

What are the relative percentages of white blood cells in the blood?

NLMEB (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas)

Neutrophil (60%)
Lymphocyte (25%)
Monocyte (3-8%)
Eosinophil (1-3%)
Basophil (less than 1%)

33

What are some nicknames for neutrophils?

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil, PMN, Poly

34

What is the function of neutrophils?

Function as aggressive phagocytes: body's first line of defense

35

What are immature neutrophils called?

"Band cells" only about 2%, has only 2 lobes of nucleus

36

How do neutrophils behave?

Less than 1 day in the blood...then move into connective tissue for several days to eat shit

37

In addition to the blood, where do neutrophils reside?

About 10x as many in the bone marrow

About equal amount in marginated cells.

38

What is the connective tissue surrounding blood vessels?

Intersititum

39

What are the steps of WBC extravsation?

1. Rolling
2. Activation and adhesion
3. Lateral migration
4. Diapedesis

40

What are the the 3 mechanisms of diapedesis?

1. Extravasation
2. Paracellular diapedesis (between endothelial cells)
3. Transcellular (migration through a pore)

41

Describe the morphology of a neutrophil.

Segmented nucleus (2-6 = normal)
9-12 um in diameter
Barr body (inactivated x chromosome in women)

42

What are the components/types of granules in neutrophils?

1. Azurophilic (lysosomes)
2. Cell-specific: enzymes and antimicrobial agents
3. Tertiary: gelatinases and collagenases allow migration

43

How do neutrophils work?

Bind specific bacteria via cell-surface receptors. This binding activates phagocytosis of the foreign agent -> creation of a phagosome.

44

What do the tertiary granules in neutrophils do?

Digest extracellular matrix and collagen. Chemotaxic migration to target

45

What do neutrophils secrete?

Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pyrogen (i.e. fever-inducing)

46

What do specific granules in neutrophils do?

Kill bacteria with enzymes and ROS.

47

What do azurophilic granules in neutrophils do?

Lysosomal enzymes digest bacteria

48

What does a dead neutrophil containing its semidigested material turn into?

PUS! ew.

49

What is a nickname for eosinophils?

PME

50

What does eosinophils do? How long do they last?

Respond to allergies and inflammation or parasitic infections.

Circulate less than one day, then spend about 2 weeks in connective tissue.

51

What is eosinophil morphology?

About 10-14 um in diameter
Segmented (bilobed) nucleus

Granules:
1. Azurophilic: lysosomes
2. Specific eosinophilic granules (uniform and refractive).

52

What is a unique feature of eosinophilic granules

Dark center: internum
Lighter region outside: exeternum

53

What are the components of the eosinophil granule internum?

Basic protein, cationic protein, parasitic neurotoxins, electron-dense crystalloid body

54

What are the components of the eosinophil granule externum?

Aryl sulfatase, histaminase, acid phosphatase

55

What is a nickname for basophils?

PMB

56

What do basophils do?

Responsible for vacular disturbances associated with hypersensitivity and anphylaxis; constriction of pulmonary smooth muscle

57

What effects can basophil granules have on blood vessels?

Widespread vasodilation
Decrease in blood volume due to blood vessel leakiness.

58

Describe basophil morphology.

8-10 um in diameter
Segmented (bilobed) nucleus.

Granules:
1. Azurophilic: lysosomes
2. Specific: histamine, heparin, eosinophil and neutrophil chemotaxic factors

59

What type of cell found in connective tissue shares a progenitor cell with the basophil?

Mast cell

60

Describe monocyte morphology.

12-18 um in diameter

61

What do monocytes do?

Spend 1-4 days in circulation then differentiate into various phagocytes of the "mononuclear phagocyte system"...garbage collectors of the tissue

62

What is diapedesis?

The process by which cells move from blood circulation into tissues.

63

Monocytes tend to be elevated in what type of disease?

Chronic infection.

64

Can monocytes act as antigen-presenting cells?

Yes

65

What is the morphology of a lymphocyte?

7-10 um usually but can be up to 18 um

66

What is unique about lymphocytes?

They can leave and enter circulation multiple times

67

What do lymphocytes do?

Made in the bone marrow and then become immunocompetent in the thymus. Are pre-programmed to respond to 1-2 antigenic epitopes.

68

What are stimulated/activated B-cells called?

Plasma cells

69

Can lymphocytes undergo proliferation out in the body?

Yes! They circulate until stimulated/activated by an antigen.

70

Lymphocytes are part of both the _____ and ___-mediated response systems.

Humoral and cell-mediated

71

What are platelets?

Nonnucleated cell fragment of the megakaryocyte

72

What are the parts of a platelet?

Granulomere (center: alpha granules, fibrinogen, PDGF, coag factors)
Hyalomere (periphery: actin and myosin)

Glycocalyx allows recognition

73

What are the function of the hyalomere in a platelet?

After an endothelium has been healed, the actin and myosin retracts the clot from the former wound.

Also contains cannaliculi (open channels). It serves as a collection of reserve membrane.

74

What is the function of the granulomere in a platelet?

alpha granules: fibrinogen, PDGF
delta granules: secondary aggregation
lambda granules: lysosomes to break up clot at end

75

Which type of blood cell(s) have little to no roll outside of the blood?

RBC and basophils