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0

Baroque Era dates?

1600-1750

1

Which era is in 1600-1750?

Baroque era

2

Classical era years?

1750-1825

3

End of 18th century is the ....

High Classical Era

4

Baroque characteristics...

Grand, ornamental

5

Classical characteristics

Balanced, dramatic dyanmic changes

6

Composers in Baroque

Bach
Handel
Vivaldi

7

Composers Classical era

Clementi
Salieri
Mozart
Haydn
Beethoven

8

American Revolution dates

1776

9

French Revolution

1789

10

Opera Genres

Opera Seria
Opera Buffa
Drama Giocoso
Singespiel

11

Style is ....

Repertoir, Composition Title, Genre

12

Mozart paragraph points

Elegant, songful melodies
Driven by the court, not folk
Courtley asthetics
Mood ranged from lively to somber

13

Mozarts writting notes

Contra-punctal lines interweave thru diff orchestral parts
Moderate chromatic harmony
Pyscological depth opera
Expanded the architecture of opera finale: act 2 Marriage of Figgaro

14

Eine Klein Nachtmusik date and K#

1787, K525

15

Eine Klein Nacht Mov I description

Allegro
G+
4/4
sonata
Bold and excited with leaps and forte

16

Eine Kleim nach mov 2 descp

Andante
C+
4/4
Rondo abaca coda
Sensibility style lyrical

17

Eine Klein mov 3

Allegro
G+
3/4
Ternary
Strong dance, second melody lots of chromatic movement

18

Eine klein Mov 4

Allegro
G+
4/4
Sonata rondo
Light but then Sturm und Drang

19

What genre was Eine Klein nachtmusik?

Serenade

21

Beethoven years

1770-1827

21

Beethoven teenager

Took care of family and went to U of Bonn fell in love with Lorchen 17-22

22

Beethoven childhood

1-8 lived with father as teacher
11-17 in Bonn taught by Christian Gottlob Neefe

23

Beethoven 20's

Went to Vienna in 1792, french recolution getting too closetonBonn.

1796 tour Europe started selling works

24

Beethoven established era 1800-1806

Lot of political movement just prior
1801 started loosing hearing
Darkest time 1802
Increased to 1806 highest point: wrote 3-8 symphony, violin concerto, Waldstein sonatas

25

Beethoven war era

1808-1812
Hard times, still composed
Haydn passed away 1809
Beethoven Maelzel fundraising: Battle symphony

26

Beethoven decline era

1812-1820's
Struggled with loss of hearing
Socially struggling
Brother died 1815, nephew Karl problems very distracting

28

Beethoven final years

1820's
Received grwat commisions europe, america. Wrote 9th symphony
Starting to break barriers
Also weakinging health
Passed away 1827

29

Handel's Style

powerful rhythmic drive
Preferred diatonic harmony
atmosphere for scenes
expressive phrasing in vocal, majestic arches
virtuosic arias

30

Mozart's Style

Simple, elegant, songful melodies
*Dramatic thematic contrast
interweaving contrapunctual lines, colour orches
moderate chromatic harmony
3 opera: buffa (Figaro), seria (Idomeneo), singspiel (Magic Flute)

31

Haydn's Style

Terse, angular themes
Drone bass (folk-like song)
expanded orchestra, more brass, clarinet, percu
Expressive harmony
Logical structure: sonata cycle

32

Beethoven's Style

fused Haydn and Mozart (early)
longer movements, expanded development and coda
devlop ternary sonata form (late)
highly expressive piano sonatas (Pathetique, appastionata)
Concertos combine virtuosity with symphonic structure

33

Schubert's Style

prolific song writer (Lieder)
accomp-t becomes descriptive, equal performer
songs convey passion and despair
folk-like songs
novel harmonic language and key changes for describing text

34

Chopin's Style

rubato
widely spaced chords in bass
delicate ornaments
melodies inspired by opera, bel canto
wrote nationalistic pieces: dances Polonaise, Mazurkas
wrote wide variety of character pieces

35

Berlioz's Style

program symphony
created modern orchestra: french dbl horn, harp
novel techniques for strings, clarinet; col legno
French lyricism, long-breathed melodies
used idee fixe

36

Debussy's Style

parallel chords: medieval
rhythm=dream ike fluidity over barline
flowing orchestral colour, one instrument to another
mild dissonances, new tone combinations, 9th chords (Pelleas)
whole tone scales, chromatic scales
preferred small forms

37

Stravinsky's Style

Russian nationalist - russian folk song
Neo-Classicism, middle years
Revitalized rhythm, pounding, stabbing rhythms
Polytonality, Petrushka chord, changing meters
wrote 12 tone compositions (late yrs)

38

Louise's Style

East+West
pentatonic scales
senza misura
no definite key
chinese instruments (gong)
wide variety: piano, orchestral, film, TV, ballet, opera.

39

Erlking style

Eerie atmosphere, narrator
4 characters: one singer diff vocal tone
galloping triplets, horse
minor key for boy in distress
major key for Erlking, seductive

40

Prelude to the Aftenroon of the Faun Style

Mellarme
ABA
A: chromatic melody in flute, low register
harp glissando, muted horns
A section around C sharp tonal center; mysteri
B section around D flat, woodwind exotic
A section around E and C sharp.
antique cymbals at the end
syncopated rhythms, vague beat, drifting

41

Distance Memories Style

cadenza-life passages
senza misura
pentatonic scale
floating rhythm
ternary form

42

String Quartet Op 76 no 2

4th mov. starts in dmin and finished D major
folk-like finale (Hungarian folk tune)
sonata allegro form
first theme syncopated, 2nd these contrasting gentle
triple rhythm figure at end
drone bass

43

Messiah Style

French overturn AAB, A repeated B fugtato
two recit: secco, accompagnato
Virtuoso da capo aria, melismas
Word painting, Glory to God
Homorhythm and polyphonix exchanges in Hallelujah chorus

44

French overture

AAB. Baroque, complementing two sections.

45

da capo aria

Baroque form, voice solo with instrument acompt

46

figured bass

interval notation off bass

47

basso continuo

Structure: bass and chords

48

equal tempermant

tuning: notes are leveled with frequency (12 equal tone)

49

recitative

the details sung

50

recitative stypes

secco (dry continuo), accompagnato (orchestra)

51

ritornello

rondo-like motif, opening theme returns in other areas

52

melisma

turn: one vowel, move between several notes

53

sonata allegro form

2 themes, intro, develop, recap

54

cyclic form

theme occurs again throughout

55

rocket theme

fast, low to high theme

56

habanera

Aria, Bizet Carmen. rebellious bird you cannot tame

57

lyric tragedy

--

58

idee fixe

motif theme comes back in diff movements

59

dies irae

day of rath

60

co legno

string: play with wood on bow

61

ophicleide

like tuba

62

rubato

relaxed rhythmic accuracy

63

through composed

free form

64

program symphony

symphony to story, not movements

65

polonaise

polish fance, aristocratic rhythm ta, te te ta ta ta

66

senza misura

without meter

67

pentatonic scale

missing 4 and 7 i think

68

whole tone scale

whole tone sonly

69

impressionism

relating to impressionist painting style: using textures and techniques to draw-up a feeling. Suggestive instead of depicting.

70

antique cymbals

small tuned brass discs, above xylophone

71

Petroshka Chord

C Major + F# Major together arpeggiated

72

mambo

Cuban music form

73

hemiola

3:2 ratio

74

primitivism

Rythm, accents
back to the basics, Rite of Spring: pagan rite, human sacrafice, w/ Pablo Piccaso

75

Haydn years

1732-1809

76

Haydn general points

Father of the symphony
Music was playful while elegant
Used common dramatic themes: Sturm und Drang and sensibility style
Monothematic
Influnced by folk songs and dances
Mimic guitar and bagpipes

77

Haydn Early years

Born in Rohrau, Austria 1732
Musical siblings
St Stephens choir, education
Experience performing mass festivals

78

Haydn teenager

Kicked out of choir
Made money teaching and street preforming: lots of impromptu

79

Haydn 20'30'

Kapellmeister Esterhazy
Married Maria Anna Keller
Prince Nikolai
Wrote for Opera, theater and chapel
Wrote so many symphonies and sq
Secluded in Esterhazy
Mid1780's commisssions
Visited friends in Vienna

80

Haydn 58-63

58- leaves Esterhazy
Tour London- London Symphonies
Surprise, Clock, Drumm Roll, Oxford symphonies
445 folk songs arr george thompson
Famous, conspiring w youth Mozart, Beethoven

81

Haydn late years

Return Vienna: The Creation, The Seasons oratorio
Six masses Prince Nicholas 2
Nelson mass
Health deteriorated
Napolean arrive in Vienna 1809, he died

82

Haydn Titles

104 symphonies: 94: surprise, 100 Military, 104: London
Conceros: p,v,c,t
68 string quartets: op76 no2 Quinten, no3 Kaiser
>40 piano sonatas
Orot: The Creations, The Seasons
Sacred: lord Nelson mass, mass in the time of war
Opera: 1;: Armida
Theater works

83

Haydn String Quartet

Op76, no2
1797
Quinten- desc 5ths
MOV. 4
Dmin-Dmaj
Sonata
Vivace assai
2/4
Exposition: syncopated
Theme 1: ascending intervals piano
Fermat
theme2: Fmaj descending seq
Devlop: theme 2, diff texture, dim7 tension
Recap: dmaj theme1
Cello absent
Coda: rapid triplets, end FF

84

Beethoven titles Early

Moonlight op2
Pathetique op10
Symphony 1,2: Haydn
Piano Concerto 1,2
String piano trio: Haydn

85

Beethoven Middle titles

3-8symphonies *3 eroica, 6 Pastoral
Fideleo Opera
Violin concerto
Emperor concerto5
Appasionata, Waldstein sonatas
Razumosky string q

86

Beethoven Late titles

Missa solemnis
Last 4 sonatas: Hammerklavir, op111 sonata 32
9th symphony
Great Fugue
Diabelli variations

87

Beethoven Symohony 5 Mov I

C minor
2/4
Allegro conbrio
Sonata
Expo: theme1: 4note
Theme2 winds legato
Dev: four note figure, breaking it down
Recap:obeo cadenza
Cmaj theme2
End cmin

88

Beethoven Symphony 5 Mov II

Ab maj
2theme variations
Andante con moto
3/8
Theme1: dolce legato interval jumps
Theme2: march Ab-C
4variations, dif texture, contrary motion, Abmin march
Long Coda

89

Beethoven Symphkny 5 Mov iii

C min
Ternary Scherzo/trio
allegro
3/4
Scherzo: rocket theme low strings pp
Trio: dbl bass theme
Playful Cmaj imitative
Scherzo2: soft, pizzicato
Blazing crescendo

90

Beethoven Symphony 5 Mov IV

C maj
Sonata form
Allegro
4/4
Theme1: ff trumpet - Gmaj horns
Theme2: excited va soft
Coderta uses 4note
Dev: Scherzo pp pizzicato gmaj prep
Recap: all in Cmaj
Final chord repeated 8 times

91

Shubert Intro

Born 1797 Vienna
Contrib to Leider
Classical+Romantic
Bohemian artist
Father school master
Violin piano viola family SQ
Salieri taught him, Imperial Chaple Choir

92

Schubert Early

16, wrote Erlking
School teacher
Freelance musician, sold songs

93

Schubert Middle

Esterhazy summer
Friends: mayrhefer, vogschubertiades
Longing for the unreachable
Not a virtuoso performer: network
Wanted to write opera
Opera Die Zwillingsbrader, Alfonso und Estrula
Syphillis depression my Prayer

94

Schubert later

Great Symphony in C 1826 29
Visited Beethoveen
Die Winterreise, Der Doppelganger, others
mass Eb
Died 31 yrs old

95

Schubert Style 2

Classical +romantic
Sonata, std orchestra
Inf by Mozart lyric, Beethoven symphonic
Poet Goethe
Deep emotions: Death and the Maiden, Die winterriese Fantasy F min
Melody to produce colour

96

Schubert Titles

600 Leider: standchen, ave maria, die forelle, mignons leid
Song cycle: Die winter, Die schone Mullerin
9 symphony: 9 great, 8 unfinished
Chamber: 15 SQ death and the Maiden, trout
Piano many varian dance sonata duet
Choral: 7 masses
Opera: dieZwillinsbrader

97

Schubert Erlking Style

Starts with a question, not depicting- like impressionist
Erlking romantic spirit: supernatural
Ending deep tragedy V-I recit end

98

Schurbert Erlking summary details

Goethe
Erlking: evil elf, touch die
Voice-piano
G min
4/4
Schnell
Ominous urgency
4 characters
Mein Vater: minor
Erlking major

99

Chopin intro

Born 1810
Poet piano
New radical techniques
Dedicated to piano

100

Chopin early

1810 Poland: zelazowa wola
Father french, mother polish
Child prodigy
Ealry Polonaise g min
Warsaw conservatoire Jozef Elsner
Polish folk song
Salons, soiree
Russians att Vienna; Revolutionary Etude op10no12
To Paris, polish nationalism

101

Chopin Middle

26: love affair George Sand, Arore Dudevant
Shy
Sick: op28 preludes
Paris composed alot

102

Choin Late

Romance ended 37, 1847
Tourd london scotland
Died of TB
Buried in Paris, heart in Poland

103

Chopin Titles

Solo piano: etudes, dances, nocturnes, ballad, sonatas, fanatsy fmin
Piano orch: e min concero
Fmin concerto, variations Krakowiak
Chamber: cello sonata paino trio

104

Chopin Polonaise in Ab Major STYLE

1842 op53 patriotic
Pedal, rolls for tension
Virtuosity and brilliance in ascending scales
BEL CANTO used in Sec B
Unorthodox ending I-IIInat3-V7-I

105

Chopin Polonaise details

1842
Solo Piano
Ab Major
3/4
Maestoso
Proud dance
ABA form
Sec A: RH polonaise harm thirds
LH octaves
Sec B: E Major LH ostinato staccato octaves pp proud
D#maj, new BELCANTO theme
Coda: unorthodx ending

106

Berlioz intro

Born 1803 France
Arch Romantic
Dedicated to new music
Made his living as a music critic
Father of modern orchestration
No #'d symphonies
French orchestra: dbl harp, 4horn and bassoon

107

Berlioz Early

Born 1803 near Lyon France
Family wealthy, did not support music
Studied medicine, but left it for music: hated discection
Hung out in Opera houses

108

Berlioz Middle Years

Infl by Beethoven music, wrote biographoy on him
Three attmepts Prix de Rome: wanted to go to the countryside
May 1830 premeired Symphony fantastique: FAILED too hard insane notation
Music critic
Harriet Smithson

109

Berlioz late

Marriage ended with Harriet 1844, 41
Still loved and supported her
Passed away 1869, 66
Wagner and Liszt loved Berlioz's work.

110

Berlioz TITLES

Program symphony: fantastqiue, Harold in Italy, Romeo and Juliet
Concert overture:
Waverly, rob Roy, King Lear
Song cycle: Les nuits dete w orch
Opera: Les Troyens, Beatrice et Benedict
Choral: te deum, reqieum, la domination de faust
Oratorio: Lenfance de christ

111

Berlioz Symphony Fantastique style

Harriet Smithson inspired
1830
Real symphony narrative
Story based
Orchestration insanely detailed and technical it was rejected

112

Berlioz Symphony Fantastique plot summary

Lovesick artist takes opium for suicide, dreams of:
Mov1: reveries passion
Youthful passion , idee fixe
Mov2: the Ball, harp, heart beating in strings, idee fixe- the woman
Mov3: scene in the fields: two shepards english horn duet
Mov4: march scafold: nightmare kiing women he loved and being beheaded - hell
Mov5: in hell: witches sabbath. Withces gather, dies irae sung, witches dance, his beloved it there but wicked in hell

113

Berlioz Symphony fantastique Mov 5 details

4 sections:
Idee fixe
Eb major
Transformed into grotesque
Bells on i and v
Dies Irae:
C min
Orphicleride, dimin half, str dbl dimin hobgoblin
Bells

Dance Witches: C majr
Fugual- polyphonc, immit dissonance
Col legno

Combination: dies irae, dance
Conclu C maj

114

Commedia dell'arte

Comdey of artists
Improvised comedy stock characters

115

Hurdy gurdy

Portable string instrument
Wooden case, w crank

116

Pucinni style

1858 - 1924
Best known operas
Master melody
Flexibility of aria line
Orchestra colour
Character
Used realism, parlando, violinata

117

Puccini Titles

Madame Butterfly
La boheme
Todca
Tarandoy

118

Puccini Madame
butterfly

Act I
Cmin 2/4 Allegro contrapunc Fugual

Act II
ABAC Gb maj 3/4
Homophonic sec B 2/4, C recit

119

Modern styles

Expanded tonality
Polytonality: more centers
Modal scales: renaissance
Atonality: absence center
12tone
Pentatonic
Whole tone

120

Debussy intro

1862 1918
Exotic
Unique style

121

Debussy Early

Born France. 1862
Father china shop owner
Piano 7yrsold
10y paris Conservatior piano comp
Prix de rome
Pianist conductor
Nadezhda von Meck piano teacher
Music critic Revenue Blanche
Bayreuth wagner

122

Debussy middle

Paris World Expo
Wrote Prelude a l'apresmidi
Married
Faure, Ravel and Stravinsky
Passed cancer 56y 1918

123

Debussy Titlez

Orch: Prelude, La mer, Images, Nocturnes
Solopiano; suite bergamasque, pour le piano, Estamps
Vocal: french art, Beau Soir, Mandoline
Operas: Peleas et Melisande
Ballet: Jeux
Chamber: SQ, conatad violin

124

Bizet's Carmen style

1875
Lyric Tragedy
Mezzo lead
New opera style didnt fit in
Librettists Meilahc, Halevy (famous family)
Celebrated the erotic/ exotic Spain

125

Carmen plot

Carmen: feme fetal
Don Jose: hot tempered dummy
About the dangers of womenly wiles
Carmen: rebellious bird cannot b tamed, gypsy
Don Jose falls in love
Lossed everything then looses her and he kills her

126

Bizet Carmen Cigarett girls

'The perfumed smoke dissappers in the air'
Fleeting love is not worth it

Ends: 'maybe never, maybe tomorrow, not today'

127

Carmen Habenera

Rebellious bird
Seductive chromatic descending line
Meandering loyalty
D min 2/4
Ostinato cello
Im dangerous to love
3 versus:
Chorus 'lamore'
End: fate motif, falls in live with Don Jose.

128

Prelude

Keyboard improv short
Paired with fugue

129

Fugue

Structured, immitative contrapunctal
Single theme

130

Subject

First statment o main theme in fugue

131

Answer

Second statement in main theme fugue
Dominant key

132

Real answer

Exact transposition o the subject

133

Tonal answer

Statement of subject: intervals ajustednto fit harmony

134

Countersubject

A recurring counter melody
With subject+answer

135

Episode

Passage in fugue no subject or answer
Frequently sequential

136

Augmentation

Thematic material longer time values

137

Stretto

To tighten
Overlap subjects

138

Inversion

Thematic material upside down

139

Diminution

Thematic shorter time values

140

Pedal point

Sustained note harmonies change

141

Tierce de Picardie

Minor key ends in tonic major
Common in Baroque

142

Igor Stravinsky Intro

1882-1971
Widest knwin: music in Fantasis the Disney movie
*ballet main genre

143

Stravinsky early

Born 1882 Russia near StPetersberg
Father opera singer, mom singer
Well to do, parents discouraged music
Law school, private music theory
Met RimskyKorsakov in law

144

Stravinsky middle

Married
Early
Orchestra Fireworks impressed Ballets Russe director
Early Ballets: firebird, petrushka
1913 Rite Spring unconventional
Sucess later
WWI, went to Switz
1917 Russian rev
Went to Paris in 1920

145

Stravinsky late

Stylr became neoclassical
Visited US1930s
Lectured at Harvard 1939
Settled in LA b4 WWII
Worked with Robert Craft
Died 1971 in New York

146

Stravinsky Early Style

Russian nationalist folksong dance
Primitive
Stabbing rhythms
Dissonant, polytonality polymeter
Petrushka Chord
Firebird, Petrushka, rite of spring(pt2 diff time sig every bar)

147

Ripieno

Mainstrings

148

Terraced dynamics

Loud then soft in diff sections

149

Stravinsky transition style

1914-1920
More intimate WWI
Seeds of neo Classical
the wedding, the soldier's tale

150

Stravinsky Middle Style

1920-1954
Style changed: paired down
NeoClassical formal design, more reserved and balanced: detachment
Euro: Sym of Psalms, oedipus rex
American: Ebony concerto
The Rake's Progress
Apollo ballet

151

Stravinsky Late Style

1954-1971
Used schoenberg's 12 tone
Texture inspired by Anton Webern
Explored miniatures
Agon ballet, canticum Sanctum 1966

152

Stravinsky titles

Ballet; Firebird, Petrushka, the rite of Spring, Pulcinella, The Card Party, Agon, Apollo

Orch: symp of Wind instr 1925
Concerto piano and wind, violin con D, Ebony concerto, Sym C, Dumarton Oaks concertos

Choral: Symp Pslams, Threni, Canticum Sanctum, Requiem Canticles

Stage: the nightingale, The wedding, The soldier's tale, The Flood

Opera: Mara, The Rakes Progress

Oro: Oedipus Rex 1930

153

Petrushka Style

Ballet
petrushka Chord: C+F#
Flutter tongue: new technique
Themes to represent diff characters

154

Petrushka general details

Ballet 1911
Choreogr: Michel Fokine
Story: Stravinky and Alexandre Benois- Russian folk
Large orchestra +piano, xylophon, celesta. Russian +French orchestrac

Charac: Showman, Shaman(magcian), theee puppets: Petrushka, Ballerina, The Moor)
Set in St Petersberg 1830's

155

Petrushka plot summary

Puppet comes to life, can love but ends tradgic: ballerina goes with the moor, who fights him and Petrushka's head comes off with straw

1st tabl: Shrovetaide fair
Crowd, large puppet theater main attraction
Puppets come to life and dance

2 tabl: Petrushka room
Human emotion: love for Ballerina
Tries to escape
Ballerina doesnt return affextion

3 tabl: Moors room
Ballerina attracts him, he tries to impress
Petrushka is chased by moor

4 tabl: Sheovetaide
Moor kills petrushka
Showman shows Petrushka as puppet
petrushka's ghost haunts the area

156

Petrushka 1st Tableau Details

Vivace
Rondo ABACABA
Pentatonic melody in flute
Changing meter syncopation
Courful orch

Sec A:
Ostinato cello, woodw
Violin- folk
Drum- showman

SecB: wandering minstrels
Russian folksong Volochebniki
Homorhythmic, 5note desc figure

Sec C: Hurdy Gurdy
Dance tune: triple meter clarinet
Mimmics hurdy gurdy sound
Second dance flute duple meter: plagerized

Shaman:
Lento, free form
Flute cadenza: animiating puppets
Magician chords very novel then BAM

Puppets dance
Allegro Rondo
petrushka - trumpet high
A: piano/xylo brisk parallel
B: obie string russian folk
Short ostinatos
Love theme- clarinet duet
Sudden ending with ling trumpet note.

157

Leonard Bernstein Summary

1918-1990
Larger than life personality
Multifaceted musician talent
Sensed medias roll in popularizing music
Music had energy an optimi like
PostWar America
Trained at Harvard and Curtis Institute
Combined AfroAm jazz and Latin dance:popular

158

Bernsteins Style

Infku Classical forms
American + hispanic + jewish
Jazz pop musica theater
Virant orchestra, melodic style
Rhythm from dances
Dissonat, neoclassical

159

Bernstein Titles

Musical: On the Town, Wonderful Town, West Side, Candide
opera: Trouble in Tahiti, A quiet place
Ballet: fancy free, facsimilie, dybbuk
Film sc: on the waterfront
Chorus/orch: chichester Psalms, songfest, mass
Orch: 3 symp, 1: Jeremiah, 2: Age of Anxiety, 3: Kaddish
Chanber: prelude, fugue and riffs

160

West Side Story general

1957
Cultural mosiac
new york 1950's
Jets American VS Sharks Puerto Rican
amazing dance scenes
Serious + pop
Tradgic ending unprecedented
Librettist: Arthur Laurents playw, Stephan Sondheim lyr
Chor: Jerome Robbins
Film: Robert Wise, Jerome Robbins 1961

161

West Side Story plot

Charact:
Maria sop, Tony ten
bernardo bar
Riff bar
anita- mezzo

2 gangs are shown
Maria and Tony meet at a dance
Gangs fight, Bernardo stabs Riff
Tony kills Bernardo
Tony stabbed by Sharks, Maria finds him dead

162

West Side, "Maria"

SunG BY Tony
Just after metting
B to Eb
Time: C
Chant/ intone worship Maria
Modal harmony, free rhythm
Tritone, angular motif: yearning
Melody broad arc
Back to chant higher diff key
Orch: lush strings, timoani climax

163

West Side "America"

Sung by Perto rican girls Anita
Behind bernards house
Clever: hopes and faults of American dream

Intro: Peurto Rico
- ambiguos tonality
Latin sound: wood blocks
Rhythmic ostinao
Undulating line, spanish guitar
Anita repaonds with America love
Breezes: word painting

America
Cmaj, jazz mod
Call and response argument

164

Alexina Louie summary

1949-
Canadian, Vancouver
Tradi+contem
Euro+Asian+ aboriginal
Humor
Born Vancouver
ArTC rcm piano perf
ubC undergrad, master U Calif
Taughin Cal
Settled Toronto
Esprit Orchestra: canadian new music

165

Louie Titles

Keyboard: music for piano, dragon bells, scenes from a jade terrace, fast forward
Chamber: demon gate, edges
Orc: music for heaven and earth, the eternal earth, o magnum for Glen Gould
Film sc: the five senses, last night
Vocal: the scarlet princess, toothpaste, Burnt toast

166

Distant Memories

Arch form: ABCBA

A: senza misura: flared beam real time

B: quasi berceuse: metered, time sig change, gentle rock, harmon static
C: piu mosso, forward tempo, homophonic, bassline chNged

167

Mozart Early

1756 born Salzburg Austria
Piano prodigy, performed at 6
Toured Paris, London, swt met Bach
9 yrs toured performed

168

Mozart middle yrs

As Concert master for 4 yrs: sym, SQ, sonata opera, ciolin concert,
piano concerto 9: 21yrs

Left Austria 21, poverty return home mom sick: court organist: Coronation mass

23: vienna freelance
Opera Die Enthfuhrung
Met Constanze
Bach handle infl: Magic Flute, Sym 41
Friend w Haydn
Prolific paid
Marriage Figaro, Don Giovanni

169

Mozart later

Chamber composer Emporer Joseph II
Warring country, low money
the magic flute, Requiem, piano concerto Bb
Last perform 1791 piano coned Bb
Died 1791

170

Mozart Titles

40
Sym: 38: Prauge, 41: Jupiter
27 piano concerto
23 SW
Sonatas, fantasies, variations
20 opera: Don G, Cosi fan tutti, marriage, magic flu, Vocal leider, concert arias, motets and masses, Coronation mass, requiem mass

171

Antonio Vivaldi bio Style 2

1678-1741
Violin and conductor
Venice
Cathlic prist red hair
Composer of oper but concertos were famous

Dev 3mov concerto
Ritornelli form alot
Idiomatic strings
Virtuoso string
Program
Asymettric phrase
Inventive, animated
Itslian colour, movem rhythm drive
Sense of what came next
Concertos: multiple combinations

172

Vivaldi Titles

>400 concertos, >200 violin
Op3: l'esto armonico
Op8: The Four Seasons
Op9: Harp ---op12
English concertos 9concerti Cmaj RV558
>40 operas: Orlando Furioso, Griselda
Sacred: oratorio, Juditha Triumphs, motets and Gloria

173

Vivaldi La Primavera Spring

1725
Solo violin concerto
the contest between harmony and inspiration

mov1: emaj
Allegro 4/4, C Ritornello
Theme1: spring comes
Theme2: birds
Theme3: mur brook undulating vi
Theme4.thunder light 32ndnotes

Mov2:C#min largo 3/4 goatherd and dog binary
Solo violin- goatherder
Violin dotted rustling leaves
Viola dog
No cello

Mov3: Emaj Allegro 12/8 ritorn
Nymphs and shepards
Bass bagpipe drone
Lilting meter - dance

174

Bachs ppl

johann christoph- older brothe raised
Lubeck- influ
Carl Phillip son
Maria Marbara wife
Wilheim Friedmann son
Duke Weimar pAtron
Prince Cothen patron friend
Anna magdelena wilcke wife2
Johan christian son
Johann christoph son

175

Handels ppl

Prince Ferdinand de medici
prince Francesco Maria RuspolI
george ludwig Elector Hanover
queen anne
Earl of Burlington
Duke Chandos

176

Mozarts ppl

Emperor Joseph II
Lorenzo da Ponte- librettist
Haydn friends
Constanze Weber wife
Emanuel Schikander librettist magic flute
lLeopold II king Bohemia

177

Haydn ppl

Count Ferdinand von Morzin
Esterhazy: Prince Nickolai
Maria anna keller wife
George thomson- songs 445
Napolean

178

Beethovens ppl

Christian Gottlob Neefe teacher
Lorchen love
Napolean
Caspar brother
Karl nephew
Johanna sister in law

179

Schuberts ppl

Salieri
Johann Micheal Vogl
Johann mayrhefer
Schober
Goethe

180

Chopin ppl

Jozef Elsner teacher
Warsaw conservatorie
George Sand, Aurore dudevant

181

Berlioz ppl

Harriet Smithson

182

Debussy ppl

Mallaerme
Baudelaise

183

Stravinsky ppl

Rimsky-Korsakov
Katerina Nossenko wife
Diaghilev
pablo picasso
Robert craft

184

Jojann Senastian Bach
General

1685-1750
Musical family
Baroque craftsmanship
Always wrote with intention,
Awareness
Religious artist/scholar

185

Bach early

Born in Eisenach Germany 1685
Orphan, brother taught him
Greek latin theology
Virtuoso organ violin
Instrument repair
16: organist and vioinist Luneberg
18: first job rebuilt organ

186

Bach Armstadt Mulhausen

Court violinist chamber musician org
1705- left to meet Buxtehude in Lubeck
1707 married
Wrote first contatas ( too hard for singers)

187

Bach Weimar

1708-1717 canata period
3d in com Court organist under Duke Weimar
Famous organ works
Lutheran service: canata chorale prelude
1717 one month jail

188

Bach Cothen

1717-1723 Instrumental period
More $ less duty
Kapellmeister Prince Leopold Cothen friend
No music in church Calvinist
Well Tempered Clavier bk1
Remarried Anna Wilcke two child
Brandenberge concertos POP
4 orch suites, lute suites, 6 unacc violin

189

Bach Leipzig

1723-1750
Cantor St Thomas School
Teaching comp dire church serv
Director Collegieum musicim Uni
Goldberg varjations Art of Fugue
Wrote 1 canata a week, 5 yrs
1942 Well Tempered Clavier bk2
1750 died stroke

190

Bach Style

High baroque
Religious: christian events focus
Highly mathematical, constructivist, used chorael to anchor opening chorus
German+French+italian

191

Bach Titles

Keyboard: notebook for Anna mag for wilheim friedman. Well Temp, tocattas
6 french and 6 eng suites, italian concertos, fantasy and fugue
Organ: chorale preludes passacaglia fugues
Chamber: 6 unac viol and cello
Orch: 6 brandenberge concertos, 4 orch suites, vili harp concertos
Vocal: 200 cantatas, passions St matthew St john mass B min

192

Handel Titles

Opera: Rinaldo, GiuliomCesare, serse, orlando

Oro: messiah, judas maccabeus, israel in egypt
Sacred: ofe for saint cecilia, Te Deum
Kryboard: organ harp
Orch: suites(water music, music for royalmfireworks) concerti grosso, organ concertos
Chamber: trios and sonatas

193

George Frideric Handel sumary

1685-1759
Vortuoso violinist and organist
Esteemed conductor
German + italian + french + english
Got italian opera style stuck in his head

194

Handel early

1685 born Halle Germany
Father well off surgeon/barber did not approve music career
Made him study lay
Studied music after w died

195

Handel Hamburg

1703-1706
Violinist and harpsichordist
Opera orchestra
Wrote Almira, Nero

196

Handel Italy

1706-1710
Prince Ferdinand de medici
prince Francesco maria ruspoli
Absorbed italitan as seen in operas, oro and concertos
Visited major cities

197

Handel Hanover

1710-1712
Kapellmeister George Ludwig Elector of Hanover

198

Handel London

1712-1759
Anuity Queen Anne
1714 elector becomes king
Erl Burlington an Duke of Chandos patrons
1719 founded Royal Academy of Music for opera
Famous singers Faustina and Francesca
1728 brittosh subject
1742 Messiah premeried Dublin sucsses
1753 retired, failing eyesight
Passes away at Westminster abbey

199

Handels messiah general

Test to internationals
Oratorio
1742
librettist Charles Jemens
1: prophecy of christ and birth
2: christ suffeing snd death, spread doct
3: redemption of the world
4 solo, string orch + continuo, oboe, bassoon. Trumpet and timpani

200

Handels messiah overturn

Sinfony
French overture
A rep , B
E min
Time: C

Sec A: Grave homophonic
Dotted rhythm
Elegant, grand, awe but sad

SecB: allegro moderato, polyphonic fugal
3 voices , into violin oboe
Real fugue answr 2.3voices
Words spread out to the world

201

Handels messiah There Were Shephards

Recit secco soprano
C maj
Time: C
There were shephards adibing in the field, keeping watch over their flocks by night'

Recit accom Fmaj Andante TimeC
and Lo' the angel of the Lord came, shone they were afraid
-excited accomp

Recit secco Dmaj, TimeC
And the angel said fear not good tidings born this day Christ the Lord

Recit acc Dmaj timeC
And suddenly all angels praise God saying...

202

Handels Messiah Glory to God

Chorus
dmaj
Allegro C
Glory to God
Peace^ earth dwn

Rejoice greatly sop aria
Bb maj Allegro C ABA
Rejoice high leaps runs excited
Greatly emphasize

sec B Gmin
He is the righteous saviour, speak peace unto the heathen
Contrast: legato minor homophonic slower diff rythm

203

Handels Messiah Hallelujah

Chorus
D mja
Allegro C
Hallelujha for the Lord
omnipotent reigneth

Homoeythmic texture grand wide the masses
Immitative polyphony and he shall reign

Climax progressions
Hallelujah

204

Schubert early early

Born 1797 Vienna
Father school master
Learned violin and piano fromFather
Played viola family SQ
Imeperial Chapel Choir 9yrs
Saleri taught theory and comp

205

Schubert 2 large contributions

1: Leider: piano and voice changed forever
2: modulate distant keys no prep
Shows profound phycological state
Sense of alienation( out of body) chromatic modulation
Extreme change mood state

206

Carmen librettists

Ludovic Halevy
Henri Meilhac