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Flashcards in History Deck (67):

Interpersonal Abuse is aka?

Family Violence
Intimate Partner Violence
Domestic Violence
Domestic Abuse


Women and children are more likely to be victimized in their own homes than they are...

on the streets of America's most violent cities


Family interactions comprise the single greatest determinant of?

an individual's level of violence outside the home


Why is there little agreement on what exactly constitutes family violence?

Adult victims may not recall childhood abuse
Children and spouses who are currently in abusive relationships
may ‘not view
wish to view
be unable to report
the behaviour’ they have experienced as abuse


In domestic violence situations, the perpetrator is

related to the victim in some way


Historians examine the development of families over time. While there isn’t much documentation about family violence, examining the laws of the time gives us a way to examine what society thought of the members of families and how they were to behave. Laws reflect the mores of the majority. They are established by the government of the time.

Legal sanctions on wife assault help identify? (2)

– what the expected code of behaviour by husbands was
– social status of family members which dictate how people are treated


Patriarchy – refers to a

What do some experts suggest about patriarchy?

Patriarchy today is used to describe an inequality of power of men dominating women. Even today, social mores reminiscent of ancient patriarchy may...?

social system that recognizes the complete dominance of men over women

that this inequality of the sexes is the foundation for the assumption of male superiority and the foundation for intimate partner violence

keep private the abuses that are legally prohibited


Patriarchy can be traced back beyond the Roman era. It defined...

relationships between husband and his wife and children


Patriarchy is recognized as?

as the most common and enduring social system


Patriarchy has been typically strengthened by?



Greece – first written laws – 621AD
Laws concerning women: (3)

Women were controlled by men.
Most important duties for city women were to bear children – preferably male – and to run the household.
Women were denied the vote.


Roman Empire (2)

Male head of the family had full rights and powers over his wife, children, and any descendants. Any harm committed against a woman was viewed as an offense against the father if she was unmarried, or as an offense to the husband. Never to the victim. Women had no legal standing in courts so couldn’t appeal for relief in any way.

Women, children and slaves were property that could be bought or sold.


Christian Era (2)

Embraced subordination of wives over their husbands.
Scriptures commanded women to be silent, obedient, accepting of their husbands’ authority.


British Common Lawn (4)

Women and children were no longer viewed as property but result the same.
Belief that when married “the two became one” – legally and socially. The rights of women were subordinate to men when they were married. Single women did not suffer the same fate. When married, the very being or legal existence of women is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of her husband.
Rights of women are subordinate to those of the male.
Rule of Thumb


French Law
Napoleonic Code (3)

Subjugated women as legal minors for their entire lives.
Wives could be beaten, punched, permanently disfigured for minor disobedience or for scolding.
Influenced French, Swiss, Italian and German law


Early America (2)

Patriarchy continued in colonies as the ideal family.
Custom of inheritance by the eldest son.


First Nations Families

Matriarchal – family name, blood line, and inheritance came from the mother
Children were lavished with affection.
Children were not spanked or beaten as punishment.


First Nations Families and white guys

Residential schools?

European settlers disagreed with this system.
System eroded and replaced with colonists’ views of patriarchy.
Colonialization required families conform to Anglo norms.

Residential schools were established in order to teach children European values. They were often beaten by teachers, thereby learning that violence was an acceptable method of reprimand and social control.
Women’s political and economic roles suffered and abuse of children and women became prevalent.


United Nations first official recognition of protecting kids? – When?

United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child – 1989


United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child declared that all children should be protected from?

“physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child”.


United Nations first official recognition of protecting women? – When?

Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women – 1994


Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women – 1994 condemns

any “act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.”


All families conflict in inappropriate ways from time to time.
There are a number of factors which combine to create the climate where violence occurs in families. (4) FISS-CI
Our role is to try and understand these factors!

Family norms
Idealization of the family
Structural factors
Social tolerance/acceptance of violence
Cultural factors
Individual factors


Family norms (1)

It is normal to spank children


Idealization of the family

Parental rights supersede children’s rights;
Parents should control their children;
Family members have the best interests of children and the elderly at heart;
Family traditions create strong families;
Families have the right to privacy and autonomy


Structural factors

Power differentials among family members;
Time spent together increases tension;
Wives / children dependent on the husband;
Privacy and autonomy granted to families
*Economic dependency is REAL. Also, women never recover economically from divorce. Men are back on their feet in 8-10 years + continue to build.


Social tolerance/acceptance of violence (3)

Society’s acceptance, encouragement, and glorification of violence contributes to abuse in the family. ("spillover effect" raises likelihood of violence in the home)

Society would prefer that battered women be “perfect victims”, those who neither instigate abuse nor fight back.

The general public do not endorse arrest as the proper response to spouse abuse. There is concern about the legal repercussions if a man hurts someone and there is embarrassment if people find out.
There is not often guilt or shame that they hurt someone or that people would find out.


Cultural factors

Some cultures accept violence while others condemn it.


Individual factors (3)

Mental illness
vulnerability to jealousy or anger
level of attachment (affectional bond b/w a parent/child or, as an adult, the bond between romantic partners)


Social conditions become social problems through a process of

social constructionism


What is central to the process through which a social condition is redefined as a social problem?

societal reactions


Through their reactions to particular social conditions, individuals and institutions play a crucial role in?

transforming public perceptions


Define claims-making

An interest group actively engages in the process of raising awareness about a condition that they see as a social problem.


As the cause of a particular claims-making group becomes acknowledged by society more generally, the social condition comes to?

be defined as a social problem


Competing claims-makers interpret research data differently. From a social constructionist perspective, the "winners" of these debates...

define the nature and facts of social problems


How do social conditions like violence against women and children, become social problems that need to be addressed?

Social constructionist theory helps us explain this through the process of claims-making. This is the societal reaction to a situation and change in public perceptions.


Discovering child abuse. Say more. (2)

Construction of childhood as a special phase of life only emerged in the last 100 years
Children previously viewed as property of parents, economic liabilities, mini-adults (workers)


According to American sociologist, David S. Finkelhor, one of the leading researchers in the area of family violence, there were two social changes that took place during the 20th century which directly contributed to the success of the save-the-children movement.

1. specialized professionals took on the task of protecting children;
2. women gained more freedom in their personal lives and more power in the workplace, allowing them to feel more empowered to advocate for children.


Family Violence refers to?

violence that takes place between immediate family members – marital or domestic violence


It is important to understand the range of terms and how they are important. Do a google search for some of these terms and see what comes up. Family Violence – what about between unmarried partners, dating partners, same sex partners?
Marital or domestic violence used to refer to?

violence between spouses or common-law


Intimate partner violence now used to refer to?

violence between spouses, common-law partners as well as anyone in a very close relationship – dating relationship for example. May even be ex-spouses or partner


Violence definition per text book

an act carried out with the intention of,
or an act perceived as having the intention of,
physically hurting another person


Family Violence definition per text book

Family violence includes family members’
acts of omission or commission
resulting in
– physical/sexual/emotional abuse
– neglect
– other forms of maltreatment
that hamper individuals’ healthy development


How do you define violence? This only defines physical violence. What about emotional or psychological violence? What about intimidation and threats? It is important to struggle with this definition because?

if we define it too narrowly we exclude behaviours
if too broadly and we include behaviour which is not generally considered family violence.

Spanking is an example. We need a definition of family violence that is narrow enough to avoid labelling every family potentially violent and broad enough to include the concept of non-physical violence.


Myths of family violence. (7)

Family Violence
– is uncommon
– is caused by risk markers
– has reached epidemic levels
– sometimes “just happens," and we should not make too much of it

Victims “Ask for it”.

Minor acts of family violence are always trivial and inconsequential.

Women who claim date rape are “lying”, “deserve what they got”, or were “asking for it”.


Family violence is uncommon – basis of this myth?

it’s hidden, subjectively defined and difficult to measure – impossible to estimate how frequently it occurs

Far more common than generally realized.
You are far more likely to be killed by someone you are related to than a stranger.


Family violence is caused by risk markers.
Risk markers include?
Say more about markers overall.

lower education/SES
coming from a home with violence or being abused as a child.
Markers correlate but are not causal.


Markers correlate but are not causal of family violence. Say more.

Vast majority abused as children do not go on to abuse.
Greatest majority of those who abuse were abused, however.


Family violence has reached epidemic levels.

Data tells us that in Canada the rates are stable. It is a serious problem but not one that is going through the roof so to speak.


Family violence sometimes “just happens," and we should not make too much of it.

There is no such thing as a momentary loss of control.
Think of an assault by a stranger. Is it a momentary loss of control, reaction to stress, blowing off steam? Is the victim ever to blame?


Victims “Ask for it”.

No one deserves, no matter what, to be abused.


Minor acts of family violence are always trivial and inconsequential.

Parents who push, shove, and occasionally hit one another are implicitly endorsing such violence as the way to settle disagreements.


Women who claim date rape are “lying”, “deserve what they got”, or were “asking for it”.

Think of the judge whose comments suggested that a woman’s clothes and way she behaved gave implicit consent for sex while she was at a bar.


There is no one theory that fully and completely explains family violence.

There are two types of theories proposed:



Macrotheories do what?

identify broad factors that make families prone to violence


Microtheories do what?

identify factors specific to individuals which may explain the use of violence


6 Macrotheories of family violence

Cultural and broad socialization factors
Deterrence theory
Social acceptance of family violence
Social-structural variables as a theory


Cultural and broad socialization factors (2)

Family violence is accepted, encouraged and glorified in North American culture.
We are socialized to accept violence.
Eg. Media; sports; conflict resolution (fighting)


Deterrence theory "The low cost of family violence"
it is the backbone of?
The cost is?
Legal sanctions (2)

Backbone of the criminal justice system.
The cost to the individual is too low.
Legal sanctions are lacking and often the abusive partner suffers no consequences.
The sanctions applied are not very effective in reducing IPV.



In a partriarchal culture, men hold greater power and privilege in the social hierarchy than do women.


Social acceptance of family violence (2)

Support for corporal punishment.
Hitting adult more acceptable than a child;
hitting a man more acceptable than a woman.


Punishment - what does this entail?
Does it work?

a negative event or the removal of a positive event with the goal of reducing an unwanted behaviour.
Doesn’t work.


Social-structural variables as a theory
Links family violence to...

Link family violence to certain socially defined classifications, such as minority status, gender, and low income.

Cluster of factors woven throughout daily living that make families especially prone to violence. Include stress-producing elements of family life such as


Social-structural variables as a theory
has identified clusters of factors woven throughout daily living that make families especially prone to violence. Name 4.

close proximity
emotional investment
privacy concerns
power imbalances


Just one talked about. Learning theory.
Describe the core process of learning theory and what it means.

Core is a process called “modeling”
People learn social behaviours and cognitions simply by observing others.


What does learning theory propose about family violence?

children model
– specific family-violent behaiours and attitudes
– conflict resolution styles
– alcohol misuse


Shortcomings of learning theory? (3)

Explanation is either overstated or too narrow
Research has methodological shortcomings.
Most individuals exposed to family violence do not go on to emulate abusive behaviours in later life.