History Ch. 3 And Mesopotamia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in History Ch. 3 And Mesopotamia Deck (86):
1

What were the basic political units of Samarian civilization

City states

2

All of the early River Valley civilizations believed in monotheism or polytheism

Polytheism

3

The most prominent temple and building in a Samarian city was known as

Ziggurat

4

What were the two most common natural disasters for Mesopotamian people

Flood and drought

5

The epic of Gilgamesh was a story about life that showed WHAT was important to Mesopotamians

God and the fragile nature of life

6

Which civilization gave us the earliest writing in the Mesopotamian era and the wheel?

Sumeria

7

Which was the only civilization in the ancient River Valley to develop city states

Sumer or the Sumerians

8

How did the ancient Samarian modify their environment to increase food production

Through digging irrigation canals

9

Hieroglyphics and cuneiform provided for the basis for the development of what?

Recorded history

10

What was the name of the ancient Sumerian's writing system?

Cuneiform

11

Which group was north of the Samarian city states

The Akkadians

12

What does Mesopotamia mean

Land between the rivers

13

What is an Empire?

A large political unit or state.
Usually under a single leader.
Controls many peoples or territories.

14

As the number of Sumerian city states grew what two things happened?

City states fought each other for control of land and water.

City states were open to invasion by other groups

15

What were the contributions of Sargon and the Akkadians?

They set up the first empire in world history

16

True or false? Empires are often easy to create but they can be difficult to maintain?

True

17

Is the rise and fall of empires an important part of history?

Yes

18

Who was Sargon?

leader of the Akkadians

19

In the new Akkadian empire who did Sargon use to govern the city states?

The former rulers of the Conquered city states of Sumeria.

20

The Acadian empire was what kind of government?

A military government

21

How did Sargon establish and rule his empire?

Military

22

Who was Naram-Sin?

Sargon's successor and grandson

23

What was Naram-Sin's nickname

King of the four corners of the universe

24

What was the cause of the fall of the Akkadian empire

Attacks from neighbors.
the empire fell by 2150 BC

25

When was the Acadian empire established

2340 BC

26

What year did the Akkadian empire fall

2150 BC

27

What was the significance of Hammurabi's codification of laws?

Based on a system of strict justice.
Penalties for criminal offenses were severe. Penalties according to the social class of the victim. The principle of retaliation "eye for an eye tooth for tooth"
It established consumer protection laws

28

True or false? After the end of the Akkadian empire there was a return to independent city states in Mesopotamia?

True

29

After a long period of warfare among city states what new empire arose?

Babylon

30

Empire

A large political unit or state usually under a single leader the controls many peoples our territories

31

Successor

One who follows, especially one who succeeds to throne or Office

32

Method

A systematic plan for doing something

33

Who was Hammurabi?

King of Babylon came to power in 1792 BC

34

What city states became part of Babylon under Hammurabi

The city States of Sumer and Akkad

35

What kind of weapon said Hammurabi's army Carry.

Axis fears and copper or bronze daggers

36

What was Hammurabi's method to gain control of the other city states

He divided his opponents and subdued them one by one

37

Hammurabi gave himself a nickname

The Sun of Babylon...The king who caused the four quarters of the world to render obedience

38

What happened after the death of Hammurabi in 1750 BC

A series of weak Kings were unable to keep the Empire United and it fell to new invaders

39

What are consumer protection laws

Builders were held responsible for the building they constructed

40

Patriarchal

Dominated by men

41

Was Mesopotamian society patriarchal or matriarchal

Patriarchal it was dominated by men

42

In Babylon if someone competitor committed a robbery, what what is the punishment?

Death

43

If a man rented his boat to seller and the seller wrecked the boat what was the punishment

The sailor gave the owner of the boat another boat

44

If a man wanted to leave his wife and children what did he have to give them

He had to give the wife gallery and use of the field garden and property so that she could raise her children

45

Under Hammurabi's code if a son hit his father what was the punishment?

His hand was cut off

46

Under Hammurabi's code if a man put out the eye have another man what was his punishment

His eye should be put out

47

Under Hammurabi's code if the builder built the house and the house he built fall on its owner and kill them what what is the punishment to the builder

Death

48

What does Mesopotamia mean

The land between two rivers

49

What two rivers provided fertile soil in Mesopotamia

Euphrates and Tigres Rivers

50

List the three general areas of Mesopotamia

Akkad
Assyria
Sumer

51

Who are the creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization

Sumerians

52

How did people in the Fertile Crescent adapt their environment

By digging drainage ditches and creating irrigation systems, trading and making mud bricks

53

When did Sumerians establish city states in southern Mesopotamia

3000 BC

54

List three city states in southern Mesopotamia

Uri
Eridu
Uruk

55

Why is Uruk important

It was encircled by a wall 6 miles long with the fence towers located every 30 to 35 feet along the wall. There was about 50,000 people

56

What were building is made of and why

Sun-dried bricks. These materials were plentiful. They didn't have wood or stone

57

What is a Ziggurat

A tower or temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess in a Sumerian city

58

Describe the religious beliefs of people living in Mesopotamia

Polytheistic they believed in many gods

59

Sumeria was a theocracy. Define theocracy

A government established by defined authority. The gods ruled

60

How did religious beliefs influence the organization of Sumerian society

The Sumerians believed religion answered all their questions about life. The king had divine right to rule.

61

Economy and Sumer was based on

Trade and agriculture and barter

62

What does barter mean

Barter is a form of trade that involves trading one good for another good.

63

Define transport

The moving of goods or people

64

When did the Sumerians invent the wheel

Around 3000 BC

65

Ziggurat

A massive stepped tower and which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess in the Sumerian city

66

Sumerian City states contain three major social groups

Nobles. Commoners. Slaves.

67

The group of nobles in a Sumerian society included

Royal and priestly officials and their families

68

Who were the commoners

They work for palace and temple of the states and his farmers merchants fishers and crafts people.

probably 90% or more of the people were farmers

69

Who were slaves

Slaves along the palace officials

70

Define invention

A new idea, method, or device.

71

What is cuneiform

Wedge shaped, a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a read stylist to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet. Used primarily for record-keeping

72

What did people use writing for

Primarily for record keeping.
Cuneiform text were used in schools to train scribes keep records to pass along knowledge from person-to-person and from generation to generation.
It also lead people to communicate ideas in new ways

73

What is a scribe

A scribe is a person who reads and writes books or documents by hand in cuneiform or other scripts and may help keep track of records.

74

List three reasons why writing is important

Cuneiform text were used in schools to train scribes keep records
to pass along knowledge from person-to-person and from generation to generation.
It also lead people to communicate ideas in new ways

75

List the inventions of the Sumerians

invented cuneiform
The Wagonwheel.
Sundial
first to make Bronze out of tin and copper achievements in math and astronomy
devised and number system based on 60
used geometry to measure field and erect building charted the heavenly constitutions

76

Define culture

The way of life a people follows

77

What is civilization

A complex culture in which large numbers of people share common elements such as social structure religion and art

78

Explain the relationship between culture and civilization

A civilization is a complex culture

79

Explain what governments do

Government help keep situations in order, the organizer, they make laws, they protect the people

80

How does religion change

Hey changes because there are new deities increase

81

How does social structure change

Social structure changes based on the complexity of the civilization. The wealth of the civilization. The technology of the civilization

82

How did the jobs of artisans and Craftsmans change? Why

The jobs of artists and craftsmen change because of new discoveries new technology new tools and new resources. They changed because people want to trade for different things

83

Why was writing an important feature of early civilizations

Cuneiform texts were used in schools to train scribes
To keep records
to pass along knowledge from person-to-person and from generation to generation.
It also lead people to communicate ideas in new ways

84

How did large-scale agriculture lead to new patterns of living in River Valley civilizations

Also called systematic agriculture.
It led to the keeping of animals
the growing of food on a regular basis.
It led to a surplus of food which encouraged trade. This led to the division of labor of people. People had specialized jobs

85

List six important features of a civilization

Cities
government
religion
social structure
writing
art

86

What role did the physical environment play in the development of Sumerian civilization

They could not predict the floods so they learned to control the flow of the rivers with irrigation and drainage ditches.

An abundance of food allowed many people to live together in cities and civilization emerged.