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A medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders, among which are affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual abnormalities.

**Psychiatry requires four years of medical school
**Psychiatrists can diagnose other medical illnesses and can prescribe medications


Timeline of Psychiatry

Early Demonology => Somatogenesis => The Dark Ages and Demonology => Asylum Development => Contemporary Thought


"Ancient world" 2000 B.C. - 410 A.D.

Origin of suffering is still located outside the person, i.e. demons and devils who possessed the individual to act in destructive ways


Ancient procedure where a hole is bore in the skull of a person, where evil or demonic spirits can escape

Trepanation (2000 B.C.)


Where earliest recorded psychiatric disorders were discovered

Ebers Papyrus (1500 B.C.)
**Described illnesses which sound like depression, dementia, and schizophrenia
**Start of somatogenesis (blaming of body parts)
**The heart was the seat of these emotions; depression, psychosis comes from black or bad heart


According to Hippocrates (460 B.C.) temperaments depended on 4 humors of the body:

1. Black bile: melancholic
2. Yellow bile: cholinergic
3. Phlegm: Phlegmatic (sipunin)
4. Blood: Sanguine


Black bile: melancholic

1. moody
2. anxious
3. pessimistic


Yellow bile: Cholinergic

1. touchy
2. restless
3. optimistic
4. impulsive


Phlegm: Phlegmatic

1. passive
2. controlled
3. careful


Blood: Sanguine

1. sociable
2. outgoing
3. talkative
4. carefree


Where a woman has an uncontrollable outburst of emotion or fear
e.g. Fainting, excessive crying, hyperventilation, excessive laughing, shocked state, etc.

**Believed to arise from a wandering uterus
- hyperventilation: uterus near the lungs
- fainting spells: uterus near the brain


What are the treatments for a "wandering uterus"?

 Marriage and intercourse
 Lure uterus back into its place by using scents; inhale foul smells to send uterus back, or place fragrant scents into the vagina to lure uterus back


In 200 A.D galen refined hypocratic theory
- depression caused by accumulation of black bile
Treatment: bloodletting, purging, diets, exercise, and intentional contraction of quaternary fever (malaria)

In 400 A.D. "fall of the roman empire"
- Decline of scientific knowledge regarding mental illness
- Europe returned to demonological explanations for mental health


“Full moon can drive people crazy”

Lunacy (410 A.D.)


"middle ages" (705 A.D.)

705 A.D.
- First psychiatric hospitals were found
- Muslim physicians were the first to establish the first hospital in Baghdad
1247 A.D.
- Bethlehem Hospital later known as Bedlam Hospital is the oldest psychiatric hospital in Europe, now it’s only seen and used in horror movies


"Renaissance period" (1500-1950)

1500 A.D.
- Malleus Maleficarum: published manual of how to torture someone into confessing that she is a witch
- Philippus Aureolus Theoprastus von Hohenheim (Paracelsus): Believed that mental illness had a natural cause (insane people be burned at stakes)
- King Henry VIII: Founded the Royal College of Physicians to protect the public from unregulated and unqualified quacks
- The Asylum Era
- More and more theorists believed that mental illness is somehow related to disorders found in the brain
- Punishment is still the key to recovery


- Mental illness is a result of pooling of blood in the brain thus the invention of several interventions of relieving blood pooling in the brain
- No real treatments were available and numbers of incurable patients began to increase

Psychiatric Treatments
1. Whirling Chair – patients were placed in a chair and made them spin very, very fast until blood oozed out of their lips and nose
2. Tranquilizer Chair (1760) – invented by Benjamin Rush. Used to treat aggression by decreasing blood from congesting in the head by lesser movement and stimulus.
3. Hydrotherapy – hyperactive patients are soaked in cold water for long periods of time to calm them down. Sometimes, they are soaked in alternating hot and cold water.


True or false
in the renaissance period physicians believed that constipation exacerbates insanity. There was an extensive use of emetics and purgatives

**19th century not renaissance period


Improve living conditions of patients in asylums and introduced humane ways of managing patients

Philippe Pinel (1792)


Coined the term “Psychiatry”

Johann Christian Reil (1808)
**“Psyche” – soul
**“Iatros” – physician


He proposed that medical students should receive 3 awards upon graduation
o Doctor of Surgery
o Doctor of Pharmacology
o Doctor of Psychiatry

Johann Christian Reil (1808)


Originally known as Assoc. of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane

Known today as the American Psychiatric Association


Laid foundations of modern classifications of psychiatric syndromes by making the distinction between psychosis and mania and paranoid psychosis

Emil Kraeplin (1896)
**Coined “Dementia praecox” or today known as schizophrenia


Year of discovery of various medications for mental illness

1930’s onwards


The patient is given a high amount of insulin to make the blood sugar go down to induce seizures

Insulin-coma therapy (Sakel, 1930’s)


A neurosurgical procedure involving the incision into the prefrontal lobe

Prefrontal lobotomy (Moniz, 1935)
**Used to decrease hallucination, delusions however they are like living dead, or vegetable


True or false
Around 20% of the world's children and adolescents have mental disorders or problems

**1/2 of mental disorders begin before the age of 14
**Neuropsychiatric disorders are among the leading causes of worldwide disability in young people


Mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide

**About 23% of all years lost because of disability is caused by mental and substance use disorders


True or false
About 100,000 people commit suicide every year

**About 800,000 people commit suicide every year
**95% of all persons who commit or attempt suicide have a diagnosed mental disorder