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1

A medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders, among which are affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual abnormalities.

Psychiatry
**Psychiatry requires four years of medical school
**Psychiatrists can diagnose other medical illnesses and can prescribe medications

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Timeline of Psychiatry

Early Demonology => Somatogenesis => The Dark Ages and Demonology => Asylum Development => Contemporary Thought

3

REMEMBER
"Ancient world" 2000 B.C. - 410 A.D.

Origin of suffering is still located outside the person, i.e. demons and devils who possessed the individual to act in destructive ways

4

Ancient procedure where a hole is bore in the skull of a person, where evil or demonic spirits can escape

Trepanation (2000 B.C.)

5

Where earliest recorded psychiatric disorders were discovered

Ebers Papyrus (1500 B.C.)
**Described illnesses which sound like depression, dementia, and schizophrenia
**Start of somatogenesis (blaming of body parts)
**The heart was the seat of these emotions; depression, psychosis comes from black or bad heart

6

According to Hippocrates (460 B.C.) temperaments depended on 4 humors of the body:

1. Black bile: melancholic
2. Yellow bile: cholinergic
3. Phlegm: Phlegmatic (sipunin)
4. Blood: Sanguine

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Black bile: melancholic

1. moody
2. anxious
3. pessimistic

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Yellow bile: Cholinergic

1. touchy
2. restless
3. optimistic
4. impulsive

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Phlegm: Phlegmatic

1. passive
2. controlled
3. careful

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Blood: Sanguine

1. sociable
2. outgoing
3. talkative
4. carefree

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Where a woman has an uncontrollable outburst of emotion or fear
e.g. Fainting, excessive crying, hyperventilation, excessive laughing, shocked state, etc.

Hysteria
**Believed to arise from a wandering uterus
- hyperventilation: uterus near the lungs
- fainting spells: uterus near the brain

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What are the treatments for a "wandering uterus"?

 Marriage and intercourse
 Lure uterus back into its place by using scents; inhale foul smells to send uterus back, or place fragrant scents into the vagina to lure uterus back

13

In 200 A.D galen refined hypocratic theory
- depression caused by accumulation of black bile
Treatment: bloodletting, purging, diets, exercise, and intentional contraction of quaternary fever (malaria)

In 400 A.D. "fall of the roman empire"
- Decline of scientific knowledge regarding mental illness
- Europe returned to demonological explanations for mental health

14

“Full moon can drive people crazy”

Lunacy (410 A.D.)

15

REMEMBER
"middle ages" (705 A.D.)

705 A.D.
- First psychiatric hospitals were found
- Muslim physicians were the first to establish the first hospital in Baghdad
1247 A.D.
- Bethlehem Hospital later known as Bedlam Hospital is the oldest psychiatric hospital in Europe, now it’s only seen and used in horror movies

16

REMEMBER
"Renaissance period" (1500-1950)

1500 A.D.
- Malleus Maleficarum: published manual of how to torture someone into confessing that she is a witch
- Philippus Aureolus Theoprastus von Hohenheim (Paracelsus): Believed that mental illness had a natural cause (insane people be burned at stakes)
- King Henry VIII: Founded the Royal College of Physicians to protect the public from unregulated and unqualified quacks
1650-1950
- The Asylum Era
- More and more theorists believed that mental illness is somehow related to disorders found in the brain
- Punishment is still the key to recovery

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19TH CENTURY
- Mental illness is a result of pooling of blood in the brain thus the invention of several interventions of relieving blood pooling in the brain
- No real treatments were available and numbers of incurable patients began to increase

Psychiatric Treatments
1. Whirling Chair – patients were placed in a chair and made them spin very, very fast until blood oozed out of their lips and nose
2. Tranquilizer Chair (1760) – invented by Benjamin Rush. Used to treat aggression by decreasing blood from congesting in the head by lesser movement and stimulus.
3. Hydrotherapy – hyperactive patients are soaked in cold water for long periods of time to calm them down. Sometimes, they are soaked in alternating hot and cold water.

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True or false
in the renaissance period physicians believed that constipation exacerbates insanity. There was an extensive use of emetics and purgatives

false
**19th century not renaissance period

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Improve living conditions of patients in asylums and introduced humane ways of managing patients

Philippe Pinel (1792)

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Coined the term “Psychiatry”

Johann Christian Reil (1808)
**“Psyche” – soul
**“Iatros” – physician

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He proposed that medical students should receive 3 awards upon graduation
o Doctor of Surgery
o Doctor of Pharmacology
o Doctor of Psychiatry

Johann Christian Reil (1808)

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Originally known as Assoc. of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane

Known today as the American Psychiatric Association

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Laid foundations of modern classifications of psychiatric syndromes by making the distinction between psychosis and mania and paranoid psychosis

Emil Kraeplin (1896)
**Coined “Dementia praecox” or today known as schizophrenia

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Year of discovery of various medications for mental illness

1930’s onwards

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The patient is given a high amount of insulin to make the blood sugar go down to induce seizures

Insulin-coma therapy (Sakel, 1930’s)

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A neurosurgical procedure involving the incision into the prefrontal lobe

Prefrontal lobotomy (Moniz, 1935)
**Used to decrease hallucination, delusions however they are like living dead, or vegetable

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True or false
Around 20% of the world's children and adolescents have mental disorders or problems

True
**1/2 of mental disorders begin before the age of 14
**Neuropsychiatric disorders are among the leading causes of worldwide disability in young people

28

REMEMBER
Mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide

**About 23% of all years lost because of disability is caused by mental and substance use disorders

29

True or false
About 100,000 people commit suicide every year

false
**About 800,000 people commit suicide every year
**95% of all persons who commit or attempt suicide have a diagnosed mental disorder