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Flashcards in Hitler's Germany Deck (30)
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1

Authoritarianism

A form of governance where individual freedom is compromised in the pursuit of strong central power. Political freedom is typically limited and harsh laws; strong censorship and propaganda are commonly used to force individuals to obey a set of rules.

2

Totalitarianism

A form of governance which favors the existence of a central authority, often a dictator who require complete subservience and unquestioned obedience to the state.

3

Communism

A theory or system of social organization in which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to their ability and needs.

4

Nazism

Ideology of political and social system created by the Nazi party and Hitler; primarily concerned with racial hierarchy and influenced by anti-Semitism.

5

Democracy

a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

6

Coalition government

A government in which two or more political parties cooperate to form a cabinet. This style of governance encourages diversity of views but decision-making can also be inefficient and slow .

7

Dissent

The holding or expression of opinions at variance with those commonly or officially held.

8

Dehumanisation

The process of depriving a person or group of positive human qualities. e.g. the removal of basic rights and protection by the law for all Jews; idea of Jews as a parasitic race.

9

Hyperinflation

Rapid, excessive, and out-of-control general price increases in an economy, often caused by mass printing of currency. e.g. to pay for war damages from WWI, Germany had to print lots of money to pay for the reparations and also pay the wages of the working class.

10

Right-wing and left wing

Right-Wing; generally refer the group who favour traditional modes of authority base, often in favour of re-establishment of the Kaiser and old ways of societal organisation. Left-Wing: generally refer to the group who demands for radical change to the way power is organised and decisions are made within the state.

11

Cult of personality

Arises when a country's regime uses the techniques of propaganda; glorifying someone (often the dictator) to the fullest extent. In the context of Germany, platforms like rallies and textbooks help create this idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of Hitler.

12

This article clause gave power to implement laws or policies during a state of emergency. Hitler was granted access to the country's resources and made decisions very much on his own by invoking this power. The government was given authority to curtail constitutional rights including, free expression of opinion, freedom of the press, rights of assembly, and the privacy of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications. Constitutional restrictions on searches and confiscation of property were likewise suspended

Emergency powers (Article 48)

13

Organisation working directly under Hitler that provided security to party proceedings, enforce racial policies and for general policing. Focused on protecting Hitler and branded as an elite troop of pure Aryans.

SS (Schutzstaffel)

14

The "Storm Detachment", was the Nazi Party's original paramilitary wing. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies; disrupting the meetings of opposing parties; fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties. They were often known as the brownshirts because of their attire.

SA (Sturmabteilung)

15

Hitler?s oratorical skills

One of the main reason for Hitler to consolidate power and support was his charisma and oratorical skills that allowed him to win the support of the crowds. His fiery rally speeches were electrifying and able captivate the hearts and minds of the audience.

16

Reichstag Fire Decree (later Enabling Act)

The Reichstag Fire Decree is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire. The decree nullified many of the key civil liberties of German citizens.

Later, the Enabling Act would be passed to allow Hitler to pass laws without the authorisation of the President.

17

Subdivision of the SS often known as the secret police of Nazi Germany that focus on the monitoring and surveillance of the working class to prevent a coup and ensure there is absolute loyalty to Hitler. Often uses cruel and inhuman ways to torture their victims; who were often the Jews. Many served in the concentration camps as wardens and guards, becoming war crime perpetrators.

Gestapo

18

Propaganda refers to materials that are especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view. In Nazi Germany, the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda was established, helmed by Joseph Goebbels. Some common propaganda efforts include school textbooks, propaganda speeches & posters, rallies.

Propaganda

19

Censorship

Information hostile to Nazi party kept away from German people. This was heavily monitored by the Reich Chamber of Commerce (dealt with literature, art, music, radio, film, newspaper). Book burnings and death punishments from listening to foreign broadcast were conducted.

20

Anti-Semitism

Hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Persecution of Jewish people and other minority groups is evident throughout Nazi Germany. In particular, the Night of Broken Glass (Nov 9, 1938) and the Holocaust (1941) or Final Solution are two key events/phenomenon.

21

The Hitler Youth

The Hitler Youth was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany. From 1933 until 1945, it was the sole official boy's youth organisation in Germany and was partially a paramilitary organisation. Later, a subunit, the League of German Girls was created for girls as well. The Hitler Youth sought to nurture future Aryan leaders, and groom youths into SS leadership through subjecting them to Nazi racial ideological brainwashing and a rugged education that prepares them for life as the stronger race

22

Positive economic impact of the Reich

The Reich Labour Service was established to reduce unemployment rates. Some efforts include public works programmes (e.g Autobahn) to improve infrastructure while providing jobs. Remilitarisation also helped to provide more jobs.

23

The _____ _____ was established in 1934 and subsidised important local industries and tightened control on imports. Hermann Goering's 4 year plan was to make the country self-sufficient and to get Germany ready for wars. Jewish businesses were also boycotted, supposedly creating more opportunities for Germans.

New Plan

24

Organising workers' leisure time

Did not allow workers to strike, gave workers workbooks for employer to track progress, monitor efficiency and provide praise/consequence accordingly. German Labour Front (DAF) to provide an alternative since trade unions are banned sought to control and ensure uniformity / prevent strikes. Incentives were given through the "Strength Through Joy" initiative, which organised entertainment trips, free cinema and event tickets. Workers were to save a little every week for a car, a Volkswagen beetle named "The people's car". This aimed at controlling people's lifestyles, keeping them busy and prevent them from meddling in politics or revolting!

25

Militarization

Militarisation is the process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence. Hitler wanted to make Germany ready for war, defied TOV and re-introduced conscription. Goering's 4 year plan complemented this goal to get Germany ready for war by focusing on arms production and growth of heavy industries.

26

Reichstag Fire

The Reichstag Fire was an event where the parliament building was set on fire,, with common belief that the communists were responsible for this. The threat of communism gave Hitler the opportunity to call for enforcement of the Reichstag Fire Decree, which led to serious curbing of civil liberties and wipe out of political opposition to Hitler. It helped him to consolidate power.

27

Enabling Act

Under the Enabling Act (that followed the Reichstag Fire Decree) Hitler would be able to pass laws without the President's approval. On 23 March, when this act was to be voted on, SA and SS men surrounded the building, and only Nazis and its supporters were allowed in; all oppositional parties (communist, socialist groups) were banned from politics ever since.

28

On 14 July 1933, a new law was passed by Hitler stating that the Nazi party (NSDAP) was the only legal party in Germany. By then, even President Hindenburg was powerless and could not defend such a new law from being enacted.

One Party Rule

29

The Night of the Long Knives or the Rohm Purge was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934. Chancellor Adolf Hitler, urged on by Hermann Goering and Heinrich Himmler, ordered a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate his power and alleviate the concerns of the German military about the growing role of Ernst Rohm and the Sturmabteilung (SA). Remnants of the SA was consolidated and subsumed as part of the SS organisation hereon.

Night of Long Knives

30

With the death of President Hindenburg on August 2, 1934, Hitler merged the powers of President and Chancellor and proclaimed himself the Fuhrer of Germany. He could now even invoke Article 48 without the President and even under non-emergency circumstance.

Creation of the Fuhrer position