Flashcards in HIV Testing and Clinical Management Deck (19):
What occurs when HIV is diagnosed late?
Death more likely
Transmission to others
Most common people with HIV?
White homosexual men 35-49 years old
Clinical indicator diseases for adult HIV infection?
Kaposi's sarcoma = severe or recalcitrant seborrhoeic dermatitis, recurrent herpes zoster, oral candidosis, ral hairy leukoplakia
Head and neck cancer
Lymphadenopathy of unknown cause
Lymphoepithelial parotid cysts
Signs of HIV primary infection?
Signs of advanced HIV (CD4<200)?
Primary CNS lymphoma
What is candida?
Fungal infec - white marks (oral thrush)
Usually in healthy adults
Risk factors of candida?
What is shingles?
Reactivation of varicella zoster virus
Painful blistering rash, malaise
Risk factors of shingles?
How to recommend a HIV test to a pt?
Verbal and documented consent - send clotted blood to lab
If pt says no - explore why
How to test for HIV?
4th generation test:
- Window period 1 month
- Confirmatory test >99.9% PPV
Call specialist for advice
Result: given face to face in a confidential environment
Contact tracing done by specialist services
PR antibody and antigen only tests, point of care tests
What is Kaposi's sarcoma?
Usually linked with HIV
Spindle cells on biopsy
Refer to oncology
What is oral hairy leukoplakia?
White patches that cannot be scraped off - white striations on side of tongue
Linked with HIV, smoking and immunosuppression
What presents with herpes simplex virus (HSV)?
How does HIV impact HSV?
More severe coldsores
Outbreaks last longer
May have genital herpes
How to treat HIV?
Highly antiviral retroviral therapy (HAART) - Act on different points of HIV replication cycle = suppresses virus
Consists of 3 antiretroviral drugs
Replication cycle of HIV? How the medications work?
CD4 = lymphocyte that HIV can bind to via a co-receptor
Drugs can inhibit this process by binding to the co-receptor to stop HIV entering the cell
HIV RNA gets into cell and uses reverse transcriptase to turn itself into the DNA = NRTI and NNRTI work against reverse transcriptase
Why does HIV become resistant to drugs?
1 mutation in every 2 new viruses produced
1 -10 billion new virus particles each day
1-5 billion mutations per day