Homeostasis (235 #1, 230 #1) Flashcards Preview

Physiology & Anatomy > Homeostasis (235 #1, 230 #1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Homeostasis (235 #1, 230 #1) Deck (82):
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7 levels of structural organization

chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system and organism.

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physiology

the science of body functions - how the body works

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anatomy

the science of body structures and the relationships among them

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dissection

the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships

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atom

the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions

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molecule

two or more atoms joined together

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cell

the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals

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tissue

groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function - epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous

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organ

structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues - specific functions and recognizable shapes

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organism

any living individual

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11 systems of the human body

integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive

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Integumentary System

skin, hair, nails, sweat & oil glands - protects body, regulates temp, eliminates some wastes, helps vit D, detects sensations

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Skeletal System

bones, joints, cartilages - supports & protects body, surface area for muscle attachments, aids movements, houces cells that produce blood cells, stores minerals & lipids

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Muscular System

skeletal muscle tissue - body movements, maintains posture, produces heat

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Nervous System

brain, spinal cord, nerves, special sense organs (eyes, ears) - generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities, detects & interprets changes & responds

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Endocrine System

hormone-producing glands & cells - regulates body activities by releasing hormones

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hormones

chemical messengers transported in blood from endocrine gland or tissue to target organ

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Lymphatic System & Immunity

lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and tonsils, cells that carry out immune responses (T & B cells) - returns proteins and fluid to blod, carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood, contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B&T cells

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Cardiovascular System

blood, heart & blood vessels - heart pumps blood, blood carries oxygen & nutrients to cells and CO2 wastes away, regulates acid/base balance, temp & water content of body. blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels

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Respiratory System

lungs & air passageways - pharynx, larynx, trachea & bronchial tubes - txs O2 from inhaled air to blood and CO2 from blood to exhaled air, regulates acid/base, produces sound in larynx

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Digestive System

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine, anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas - physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid wastes

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Reproductive System

Gonads, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands in females and epididymides, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis in males - Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes; mammary glands produce milk.

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Urinary System

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra - produces, stores and eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood helps maintain acid/base balance of fluids, maintains mineral balance, regulates production of red blood cells

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6 most important life processes

Metabolism, Reproduction, Growth, Differentiation, Movement, Responsiveness

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Metabolism

the sum of all of the chemical processes that occur in the body - catabolism (breaking down complex chemical substances) and anabolism ( the building up of complex chemical substances)

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Responsiveness

the body's ability to detect and respond to changes (with nerve cells and muscle cells)

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Movement

includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells and even tiny structures inside cells.

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Growth

increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both. Sometimes due to an increase in the amount of material between cells (mineral deposits, etc)

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Differentiation

the development of a cell from an unspecialized cell into a specialized state. Precursor cells = stem cells.

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Reproduction

the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair or replacement, or the production of a new individual

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Homeostasis

the condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes. Important aspect is maintenance of volume/composition of body fluids. Nervous (nerve impulses) and Endocrine (hormones) systems usually provide needed corrective measures when stressors are introduced, through negative feedback systems.

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Intracellular Fluid

ICF - the dissolved chemicals that are found within cell walls

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Extracellular Fluid

ECF - the fluid outside body cells. Interstitial = between cells of tissues. ECF within blood vessels = Plasma. ECF in lymphatic vessels = Lymph. ECF around brain and spinal cord = cerebrospinal fluid. ECF in eye = Aqueous Humour and Vitreous Body, ECF in joints = synovial fluid

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Interstitial Fluid

the body's internal environment - proper functioning of body cells depends on precise regulation of the composition of it.

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feedback system

cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated and so on.

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receptor

a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input (nerve impulses or chemical signals) to a control centre. AFFERENT pathway = information flows towards the control center.

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control centre / integrator

sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained (set point), evaluates the input it RXs from receptors and generates output commands. EFFERENT pathway = away from the control center.

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Effector

body structure that RXs output from the control centre and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.

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Negative Feedback System

reverses a change in a controlled condition. a corrective adjustment opposes the original deviation from the normal desired level.

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Positive Feedback System

tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditions. Continues until it is interrupted by some mechanism.

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Disorder

any abnormality of structure or function

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Disease

specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms. LOCAL = one part or limited region of body, SYSTEMIC = the entire body or several parts of it.

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Symptom

subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer (headache, nausea & anxiety)

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Signs

objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure (rash, fever & swelling)

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Anatomical Position

the subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing directly forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms turned forward. UPRIGHT!

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5 Body Regions

CEPHALIC = Head, CERVICAL = Neck, Trunk (ABDOMINAL, THORACIC, PELVIC), Upper Limbs, Lower Limbs

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DIR = Superior

Toward the head, or the upper part of a structure.

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DIR = Inferior

Away from the head, or the lower part of a structure.

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DIR = Anterior

Nearer to or at the front of the body.

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DIR = Posterior

Nearer to or at the back of the body.

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DIR = Medial

nearer to the midline

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DIR = Lateral

farther from the midline

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DIR = Intermediate

between two structures

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DIR = Ipsilateral

on the same side of the body as another structure

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DIR = Contralateral

on the opposite side of the body as another structure

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DIR = Proximal

nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk, or nearer to the origination

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DIR = Distal

farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk, or farther from the origination

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DIR = Superficial

toward or on the surface of the body

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DIR = Deep

away from the surface of the body

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Sagittal Plane

a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides MIDSAGITTAL = through midline, PARASAGITTAL = unequal left & right sides

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Frontal Plane

divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

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Transverse Plane

divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions. Other names for a transverse plane are a cross‐sectional or horizontal plane.

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Oblique Plane

passes through the body or an organ at an oblique angle (any angle other than a 90‐degree angle)

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Section

a cut of the body or one of its organs made along one of the planes

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Body Cavity

spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs. Bones, muscles, ligaments, and other structures separate the various body cavities from one another

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Cranial & Vertebral Cavities

cranial bones form a hollow space of the head called the cranial cavity (KRĀ‐nē‐al), which contains the brain. The bones of the vertebral column (backbone) form the vertebral (spinal) canal (VER‐te‐bral), which contains the spinal cord. The cranial cavity and vertebral canal are continuous with one another. Three layers of protective tissue, the meninges (me‐NIN‐jēz), and a shock‐absorbing fluid surround the brain and spinal cord.

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Thoracic Cavity

is formed by the ribs, the muscles of the chest, the sternum (breastbone), and the thoracic portion of the vertebral column. Contains Pleural & Pericardial cavities and Mediastinum

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Pleural Cavity

two fluid‐filled spaces, one around each lung - serous membrane is called PLEURA

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Pericardial Cavity

surrounds the heart - serous membrane is called the PERICARDIUM

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Mediastinum

between the lungs, extending from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm. contains all thoracic organs except the lungs themselves - the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and several large blood vessels that enter and exit the heart.

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diaphragm

dome‐shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.

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abdominopelvic cavity

extends from the diaphragm to the groin and is encircled by the abdominal muscular wall and the bones and muscles of the pelvis. As the name suggests, the abdominopelvic cavity is divided into two portions, even though no wall separates them

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abdominal cavity

contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine

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pelvic cavity

contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of the reproductive system

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viscera

Organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

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intrinsic controls

are built into or 'inherent' in an organ. self-serving for the organ in which they occur.

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extrinsic controls

regulatory mechanisms initiated outside an organ to alter the activity of the organ. Accomplished by the nervous and endocrine systems (two major regulatory systems) - coordinated regulation of several organs towards a common goal.

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feedback

responses made after a change has been detected.

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feedforward

responses made in anticipation of a change.

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pathophysiology

the abnormal functioning of the body (altered physiology) associated with disease.

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teleological approach

Why do we shiver - to warm up since shivering generates heat... explains bodily functions in terms of meeting a bodily need without considering how it is accomplished.

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mechanistic approach

view the body as a machine whose mechanisms of action can be explained in terms of cause-and-effect, explaining the 'how'.