Flashcards in Homeostasis (235 #1, 230 #1) Deck (82):
7 levels of structural organization
chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system and organism.
the science of body functions - how the body works
the science of body structures and the relationships among them
the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships
the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions
two or more atoms joined together
the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals
groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function - epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous
structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues - specific functions and recognizable shapes
any living individual
11 systems of the human body
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
skin, hair, nails, sweat & oil glands - protects body, regulates temp, eliminates some wastes, helps vit D, detects sensations
bones, joints, cartilages - supports & protects body, surface area for muscle attachments, aids movements, houces cells that produce blood cells, stores minerals & lipids
skeletal muscle tissue - body movements, maintains posture, produces heat
brain, spinal cord, nerves, special sense organs (eyes, ears) - generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities, detects & interprets changes & responds
hormone-producing glands & cells - regulates body activities by releasing hormones
chemical messengers transported in blood from endocrine gland or tissue to target organ
Lymphatic System & Immunity
lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and tonsils, cells that carry out immune responses (T & B cells) - returns proteins and fluid to blod, carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood, contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B&T cells
blood, heart & blood vessels - heart pumps blood, blood carries oxygen & nutrients to cells and CO2 wastes away, regulates acid/base balance, temp & water content of body. blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels
lungs & air passageways - pharynx, larynx, trachea & bronchial tubes - txs O2 from inhaled air to blood and CO2 from blood to exhaled air, regulates acid/base, produces sound in larynx
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine, anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas - physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid wastes
Gonads, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands in females and epididymides, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis in males - Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes; mammary glands produce milk.
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra - produces, stores and eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood helps maintain acid/base balance of fluids, maintains mineral balance, regulates production of red blood cells
6 most important life processes
Metabolism, Reproduction, Growth, Differentiation, Movement, Responsiveness
the sum of all of the chemical processes that occur in the body - catabolism (breaking down complex chemical substances) and anabolism ( the building up of complex chemical substances)
the body's ability to detect and respond to changes (with nerve cells and muscle cells)
includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells and even tiny structures inside cells.
increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both. Sometimes due to an increase in the amount of material between cells (mineral deposits, etc)
the development of a cell from an unspecialized cell into a specialized state. Precursor cells = stem cells.
the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair or replacement, or the production of a new individual
the condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes. Important aspect is maintenance of volume/composition of body fluids. Nervous (nerve impulses) and Endocrine (hormones) systems usually provide needed corrective measures when stressors are introduced, through negative feedback systems.
ICF - the dissolved chemicals that are found within cell walls
ECF - the fluid outside body cells. Interstitial = between cells of tissues. ECF within blood vessels = Plasma. ECF in lymphatic vessels = Lymph. ECF around brain and spinal cord = cerebrospinal fluid. ECF in eye = Aqueous Humour and Vitreous Body, ECF in joints = synovial fluid
the body's internal environment - proper functioning of body cells depends on precise regulation of the composition of it.
cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated and so on.
a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input (nerve impulses or chemical signals) to a control centre. AFFERENT pathway = information flows towards the control center.
control centre / integrator
sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained (set point), evaluates the input it RXs from receptors and generates output commands. EFFERENT pathway = away from the control center.
body structure that RXs output from the control centre and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.
Negative Feedback System
reverses a change in a controlled condition. a corrective adjustment opposes the original deviation from the normal desired level.
Positive Feedback System
tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditions. Continues until it is interrupted by some mechanism.
any abnormality of structure or function
specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms. LOCAL = one part or limited region of body, SYSTEMIC = the entire body or several parts of it.
subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer (headache, nausea & anxiety)
objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure (rash, fever & swelling)
the subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing directly forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms turned forward. UPRIGHT!
5 Body Regions
CEPHALIC = Head, CERVICAL = Neck, Trunk (ABDOMINAL, THORACIC, PELVIC), Upper Limbs, Lower Limbs
DIR = Superior
Toward the head, or the upper part of a structure.
DIR = Inferior
Away from the head, or the lower part of a structure.
DIR = Anterior
Nearer to or at the front of the body.
DIR = Posterior
Nearer to or at the back of the body.
DIR = Medial
nearer to the midline
DIR = Lateral
farther from the midline
DIR = Intermediate
between two structures
DIR = Ipsilateral
on the same side of the body as another structure
DIR = Contralateral
on the opposite side of the body as another structure
DIR = Proximal
nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk, or nearer to the origination
DIR = Distal
farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk, or farther from the origination
DIR = Superficial
toward or on the surface of the body
DIR = Deep
away from the surface of the body
a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides MIDSAGITTAL = through midline, PARASAGITTAL = unequal left & right sides
divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions. Other names for a transverse plane are a cross‐sectional or horizontal plane.
passes through the body or an organ at an oblique angle (any angle other than a 90‐degree angle)
a cut of the body or one of its organs made along one of the planes
spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs. Bones, muscles, ligaments, and other structures separate the various body cavities from one another
Cranial & Vertebral Cavities
cranial bones form a hollow space of the head called the cranial cavity (KRĀ‐nē‐al), which contains the brain. The bones of the vertebral column (backbone) form the vertebral (spinal) canal (VER‐te‐bral), which contains the spinal cord. The cranial cavity and vertebral canal are continuous with one another. Three layers of protective tissue, the meninges (me‐NIN‐jēz), and a shock‐absorbing fluid surround the brain and spinal cord.
is formed by the ribs, the muscles of the chest, the sternum (breastbone), and the thoracic portion of the vertebral column. Contains Pleural & Pericardial cavities and Mediastinum
two fluid‐filled spaces, one around each lung - serous membrane is called PLEURA
surrounds the heart - serous membrane is called the PERICARDIUM
between the lungs, extending from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm. contains all thoracic organs except the lungs themselves - the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and several large blood vessels that enter and exit the heart.
dome‐shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
extends from the diaphragm to the groin and is encircled by the abdominal muscular wall and the bones and muscles of the pelvis. As the name suggests, the abdominopelvic cavity is divided into two portions, even though no wall separates them
contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine
contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of the reproductive system
Organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
are built into or 'inherent' in an organ. self-serving for the organ in which they occur.
regulatory mechanisms initiated outside an organ to alter the activity of the organ. Accomplished by the nervous and endocrine systems (two major regulatory systems) - coordinated regulation of several organs towards a common goal.
responses made after a change has been detected.
responses made in anticipation of a change.
the abnormal functioning of the body (altered physiology) associated with disease.
Why do we shiver - to warm up since shivering generates heat... explains bodily functions in terms of meeting a bodily need without considering how it is accomplished.