Flashcards in Homeostasis Deck (23):
What is Homeostasis?
The maintenance of a constant 'internal environment'.
What is the Hypothalamus?
The Hypothalamus is at the base of the brain and it is the thermoregulatory centre of the body.
How does the body detect changes in temperature?
Temperature receptors in the skin detect changes in the external temperature. They pass this information to the processing centre in the brain, called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus also has temperature receptors to detect changes in the temperature of the blood.
What are 3 ways the skin can help DECREASE the body's temperature?
1. Sweat can be secreted by sweat glands. This works as the body uses it's heat to evaporate the sweat.
2. Heat radiation can be increased by vasodilation. This is when blood vessels dilate so they are nearer the surface of the skin.
3.convection can be increased by hairs lying flat. This happens when the hair erector muscles relax.
What are 3 ways the skin can help INCREASE the body's temperature?
1. Sweat glands will not secrete sweat
2. Radiation is reduces by vasoconstriction. This is when blood vessels will contract so that blood is shunted away from the skin.
3. Convection can be reduced by standing hairs up. This happens when the hair erector muscles contract and it is effective as it traps a layer of still air.
What is the stimulus in homeostasis?
Any change or deviation from the ideal level.
What is meant by negative feedback?
When the corrective action that has been established, is switched off as the ideal level has been reached.
How are glucose levels in the blood DECREASED with homeostasis?
If too much glucose enters the blood from the small intestine, then:
The pancreas secretes INSULIN which converts the glucose in to glycogen in the liver, where it is stored for later use.
How are glucose levels in the blood INCREASED with homeostasis?
If there is too little glucose in the blood (e.g. After exercise) then the pancreas will secrete GLUCAGON which converts the glycogen in the liver into glucose.
What is glucose?
A soluble carbohydrate needed for cellular respiration
What is diabetes?
A condition where the pancreas cannot produce insulin to control levels of glucose in the blood.
What is glucagon
A hormone which make the liver break down glycogen into glucose.
What is glycogen?
An insoluble form of glucose that is stored in the liver.
What is insulin?
A hormone made in the pancreas that causes glucose to pass from the blood and be stored as glycogen in the liver's cells.
What are hormones?
Chemical messengers carried in the blood that cause changes in the body.
What is hypo-glycemia?
A condition where you have dangerously low levels of glucose in your blood.
Where does glucose enter the blood?
Why and how is carbon dioxide maintained at a certain level in the body?
Carbon dioxide is a toxic waste product of respiration that alters the pH levels (bad for enzymes).
It is excreted by lungs when exhaling.
Why and how is urea maintained at a certain level in the body?
Urea is a toxic waste product of liver breaking down excess amino acids.
It is removed when filtered from the blood by the kidneys, before being passed to the bladder and excreted in urine.
Why and how is water maintained at a certain level in the body?
Water is needed at a certain level so that the body's cells do not burst or shrivel.
Water is lost in many ways: breathing out (water vapour), sweating and in urine via kidneys. Water is gained by drinking.
Why and how is sugar maintained at a certain level in the body?
Sugar is needed for respiration in cells.
It is reduced by insulin and increased with glucagon.
Why and how is temperature maintained at a certain level in the body?
Temperature is needed so enzymes work at their optimum but don't denature at >45 degrees.
(Regulation explained in better detail elsewhere)