Hope for Peace - Peacemaking after WWI Flashcards Preview

EMWH: Paper 1 Revision - The 20th Century > Hope for Peace - Peacemaking after WWI > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hope for Peace - Peacemaking after WWI Deck (10)
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What was the context of the Peacemaking?




  • WWI - a traumatic experience - a legacy of destruction: 40 million dead or injured.
  • Coined - 'War to end all wars' - such a thing should never happen again.
  • General mood to replace NATIONALISM with INTERNATIONALISM


Paris Peace Conference: The basics

  • Held at Versailles (Paris),
  • France 1919 (January to June)
  • Woodrow Wilson - USA
  • Lloyd George -Great Britain
  • Georges Clemenceau - France


Wilson: Main views/aims

  • Based on his 14 Points
  • "Make democracy safe for the future"
  • Key aim: DISARMAMENT (No more arms races)
  • League of Nations - (Organisation to encourage international co-operation)
  • Self-Determination: No empires - People to govern themselves.


Lloyd George: Main views /aims

  • Reparations - GB had spent £8 billion on the war.
  • 'Just but fair' Peace.
  • Germany needed for trade.
  • Maintain an Empire No navy for Germany (A potential threat to GB's Empire)


Clemenceau: Main views/aims

  • French Security requirements paramount. (Germany invaded France twice in 50 years)
  • Germany to be made weak militarily.
  • Reparations - Northern France devasted by war.


Key Terms Versailles: Blame & German objection.

  • Clause '231' - War Guilt Clause - the basis of the Treaty German


  • Objection: 'Unfair' believed war was a complex mix of pre-war nationalism of all countries. No one country should be held to blame.
  • Also down to increased tension - e. arms race - all contributed to this.


Key Terms Versailles: Reparations & German objection.

  • Compensation for war damage. Amount 'debated' - reparations commission to decide.
  • 1921 decided on £6.6 Billion.
  • German objections: Germany economically destroyed - would prevent her from recovering.
  • Not 'fair' - future innocent Germans paying for what previous leaders had done.


Key Terms Versailles: Land & German objection.

  • Germany lost 10% of land (Border readjustments)
  • West Prussia to Poland (Polish Corridor)
  • Upper Silesia to Poland.
  • Alsace Lorraine to France.
  • Saar - to France for 15years (Had coalmines)
  • German Objection: Where was Germany's 'self-determination'?
  • 12.5% of Germans now lived under foreign rule.


Key Terms Versailles: Military & German objection.

  • Armed forces severely limited. Army - 100,000, no conscription, no General Staff. Navy - 6 battleships, no submarines.
  • Airforce - No airforce.
  • Rhineland - demilitarised (French security demands)
  • German objection: Germany disarmed, but no other European powers did so. Germany surrounded by hostile powers.


Why were there so many protests about the Peacemaking after WWI? [10]

10 min SUMMARY with Hip Huges

(Starter 1) Firstly there were many protests from the Germans who felt that the Treaty was completely unfair.

  • Many thought the Treaty was too focussed on revenge rather than creating a lasting peace.
  • The Germans hated everything about the treaty:
  • They were angry that they had not been allowed to negotiate – it had been imposed.
  • 'Deutsche Zeitung', a German newspaper, vowed: "We will never stop until we win back what we deserve."
  • Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, leader of the German delegation at Versailles said Article 231 - the war-guilt clause - was "a lie". Germany officially denied the war-guilt clause  in 1927
  • It hardly created the basis for better relations between Germany and France

(Starter 2) Moreover, even those who imposed saw it was a flawed Treaty process.

  • Lloyd George thought the treaty was too harsh, saying: "We shall have to fight another war again in 25 years time."
  • The British diplomat Harold Nicolson called it "neither just nor wise" and the people who made it "stupid".
  • The economist John Maynard Keynes prophesied that reparations would ruin the economy of Europe.
  • Self-determination may have been a bold idea – but it proved impossible to implement - neither Czechoslovakia or Yugoslavia survived as united countries.

(Starter 3) Lastly, even the French did not think it was good enough and protested!

  • Many French people wanted an independent, not a demilitarised, Rhineland.
  • Most French people did not think the League of Nations would protect them against Germany.