- WWI - a traumatic experience - a legacy of destruction: 40 million dead or injured.
- Coined - 'War to end all wars' - such a thing should never happen again.
- General mood to replace NATIONALISM with INTERNATIONALISM
Paris Peace Conference: The basics
- Held at Versailles (Paris),
- France 1919 (January to June)
- Woodrow Wilson - USA
- Lloyd George -Great Britain
- Georges Clemenceau - France
Wilson: Main views/aims
- Based on his 14 Points
- "Make democracy safe for the future"
- Key aim: DISARMAMENT (No more arms races)
- League of Nations - (Organisation to encourage international co-operation)
- Self-Determination: No empires - People to govern themselves.
Lloyd George: Main views /aims
- Reparations - GB had spent £8 billion on the war.
- 'Just but fair' Peace.
- Germany needed for trade.
- Maintain an Empire No navy for Germany (A potential threat to GB's Empire)
Clemenceau: Main views/aims
- French Security requirements paramount. (Germany invaded France twice in 50 years)
- Germany to be made weak militarily.
- Reparations - Northern France devasted by war.
Key Terms Versailles: Blame & German objection.
- Clause '231' - War Guilt Clause - the basis of the Treaty German
- Objection: 'Unfair' believed war was a complex mix of pre-war nationalism of all countries. No one country should be held to blame.
- Also down to increased tension - e. arms race - all contributed to this.
Key Terms Versailles: Reparations & German objection.
- Compensation for war damage. Amount 'debated' - reparations commission to decide.
- 1921 decided on £6.6 Billion.
German objections: Germany economically destroyed - would prevent her from recovering.
- Not 'fair' - future innocent Germans paying for what previous leaders had done.
Key Terms Versailles: Land & German objection.
- Germany lost 10% of land (Border readjustments)
- West Prussia to Poland (Polish Corridor)
- Upper Silesia to Poland.
- Alsace Lorraine to France.
- Saar - to France for 15years (Had coalmines)
German Objection: Where was Germany's 'self-determination'?
- 12.5% of Germans now lived under foreign rule.
Key Terms Versailles: Military & German objection.
- Armed forces severely limited. Army - 100,000, no conscription, no General Staff. Navy - 6 battleships, no submarines.
- Airforce - No airforce.
- Rhineland - demilitarised (French security demands)
German objection: Germany disarmed, but no other European powers did so. Germany surrounded by hostile powers.
Why were there so many protests about the Peacemaking after WWI? 
(Starter 1) Firstly there were many protests from the Germans who felt that the Treaty was completely unfair.
- Many thought the Treaty was too focussed on revenge rather than creating a lasting peace.
- The Germans hated everything about the treaty:
- They were angry that they had not been allowed to negotiate – it had been imposed.
- 'Deutsche Zeitung', a German newspaper, vowed: "We will never stop until we win back what we deserve."
- Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, leader of the German delegation at Versailles said Article 231 - the war-guilt clause - was "a lie". Germany officially denied the war-guilt clause in 1927
- It hardly created the basis for better relations between Germany and France
(Starter 2) Moreover, even those who imposed saw it was a flawed Treaty process.
- Lloyd George thought the treaty was too harsh, saying: "We shall have to fight another war again in 25 years time."
- The British diplomat Harold Nicolson called it "neither just nor wise" and the people who made it "stupid".
- The economist John Maynard Keynes prophesied that reparations would ruin the economy of Europe.
- Self-determination may have been a bold idea – but it proved impossible to implement - neither Czechoslovakia or Yugoslavia survived as united countries.
(Starter 3) Lastly, even the French did not think it was good enough and protested!
- Many French people wanted an independent, not a demilitarised, Rhineland.
- Most French people did not think the League of Nations would protect them against Germany.